The study was managed by Fluent Research and was fielded between December 13, 2022 and January 6, 2023. The total sample size of 1,724 parents and children includes:
637 parents with children ages 0–5, 1,087 parents with children ages 6–17, plus one child ages 6–17 from the same household.
Parents of children ages 6–17 completed their survey questions first before passing the survey on to one randomly selected child in the target age range.
The survey sample was sourced and recruited by Ipsos using their nationally representative KnowledgePanel®.
To further ensure proper demographic representation within the sample, final data were weighted according to the following benchmark distributions of children ages 0–17 from the most recent (March 2022) Current Population Survey (CPS) from the U.S. Census Bureau: Child gender within each of six age groups (0-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-14, 15-17), region, metro status, household income, and child race/ethnicity within two age groups (0-5, 6-17).
Some survey language was modified in age-appropriate ways to ensure comprehension among children ages 6–8. Children ages 6–8 were not asked some survey questions that involved more sophisticated thinking than is reasonable to ask 6–8 year-olds.
Parents were invited to help young children read the survey but they were asked to allow children to independently answer all questions. At the end of the survey, children were asked to record the degree to which a parent helped them with the survey.
Virtually all (98%) of the adults interviewed were the parent or stepparent of the child surveyed. Therefore, throughout this report, we refer to adult respondents as “parents.”
Ethnicity and Race data were collected using the United States Census Bureau approach; where race and ethnicity are two distinct concepts. An individual can select one or more of the following: White, Black or African American, Asian or Pacific Islander, American Indian or Alaska Native, or some other race.
According to the Census Bureau, ethnicity determines whether a person is of Hispanic origin or not. For this reason, ethnicity is broken out in two categories, Hispanic or Latino and Not Hispanic or Latino. People who identify as Hispanics may report as any race.
For the purposes of subgroup analysis, four groups are compared to each other: Hispanics (of any race); Non-Hispanic Whites; Non-Hispanic Blacks; Non-Hispanic Multiple race, Non-Hispanic, or Asian. These labels are shortened throughout the report to: White, Black, Hispanic, Asian.
Data may not sum to 100% due to rounding.
The survey was conducted using the web-enabled KnowledgePanel®, a probability-based panel that is representative of the U.S. population. The recruitment process employs a scientifically developed address-based sampling methodology from the latest Delivery Sequence File of the USPS—a database with full coverage of all delivery points in the U.S. Households invited to join the panel are randomly selected from all available households in the U.S. Persons in the sampled households are invited to join and participate in the panel. Those selected who do not already have internet access are provided a tablet and internet connection at no cost to the panel member. Those who join the panel and who are selected to participate in a survey are sent a unique password-protected log-in used to complete surveys online. As a result of our recruitment and sampling methodologies, samples from KnowledgePanel cover all households regardless of their phone or internet status and findings can be reported with a margin of sampling error and projected to the general population.