Okay, I confess: I thrive on organization and structure in my classroom. My students like routines, and I like to know what progress each student is making on a daily basis. If you are like me, then your first experience with literature circles may just put you over the edge. Relinquishing control of my classroom was not easy.
How I implement literature circles depends upon the learning outcomes for that unit. When I first implemented literature circles, the students in each group were assigned roles, as suggested by Harvey Daniels in Literature Circles: Voice and Choice in Book Clubs and Reading Groups (2002). Scholastic has a great resource that expands upon Daniels' work: Moving Forward With Literature Circles by Dixie Lee Spiegel, Janet McLellan, Jennifer Pollack Day, and Valerie B. Brown. This was helpful in teaching students how to think; however, I struggled with students who would select a quote, passage, or a couple vocabulary words without actually reading the book. On the other hand, there were students who were in a reading frenzy, finishing books in a day or two. Literature circles became more of an independent study for them. Now, I customize the literature circles to target specific learning outcomes and meet the needs of my students.
After adopting the Understanding by Design framework by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, I redesigned the experience to focus on the enduring understandings, essential questions, and learning outcomes of the literature circles experience. Literature circles still provide voice and choice. However, I also have a follow-my-curriculum map. Each unit addresses specific learning standards, so it is important to ensure that all students acquire the targeted skills and knowledge.
After engaging in a book talk, I give each student an index card. They put their names at the top. Underneath, they write their top three choices in order of preference. The cards create groups of four to five students based on choice, reading fluency, and compatibility. Students who read at similar reading rates experience less frustration. If a student finishes early, he or she can engage in enrichment activities.
Group Folders for Monitoring Progress
Each group receives a color-coded folder for storing group handouts. The folders are kept in the classroom, so if one student is absent, the rest of the group can still work. It also allows me to check up on student progress.
Middle school students sometimes struggle with long-range goals. To help them plan ahead, I give them a blank calendar, with due dates and other relevant dates on it, which is kept in the folder. Students analyze the calendar, and after a group discussion, they schedule their own assignments. As soon as my 6th graders are in control of their own homework, they are highly motivated to read. Motivation is so high that they often assign themselves more reading than I would, and they are more apt to honor the due dates. Ultimately, each student is responsible for transferring the assignments from the group calendar into his or her planner, thereby teaching them the skills necessary for achieving long-range goals.
Also included in the folder is a homework tracker (PDF/docx). At the beginning of each group discussion, the “leader” in the group records each student’s progress. The leader role rotates each day, giving each student a turn. If a student does not do his or her reading, they leave the group to catch up on the reading while the group continues the discussion. The student submits a written summary of a minimum of five detailed sentences to make up for their part of the discussion.
Teaching Talking and Listening Skills
There is no doubt that middle school students love to socialize. This is one reason why I like literature circles: it's a learning experience that taps into their social skills. However, learning when to talk and when to listen can be a challenge. If a group is struggling, I give each student in the group two poker chips. The student whose poker chip is in the center of the table speaks; all others listen. (I have used talking sticks, but I teach five sections of English and storing 25 talking sticks became an issue.) The secretary records a summary of the group’s discussion. Each member of the group must sign off on the summary before it's stored in the folder.
I teach the different roles, or ways a reader thinks, to all my students. Some roles, such as the leader, illustrator, or summarizer are individualized, and the roles rotate. However, in order to prevent my students from selecting a few vocabulary words or a single quote without actually having to read, all students assume the following roles while reading:
Vocabulary Wizards: All students engage in the vocabulary self-selection (VSS) process with each assignment. The words that are essential to understanding the story are recorded on a VSS bookmark. I print the document front to back and then cut the sheets in half vertically. They identify a synonym or antonym if possible, connecting the new word to prior knowledge. When the students meet, they bring the words to the table. Dictionaries are stored on each group of desks for quick reference.
Words of Wisdom: All students are required to select at least one quote for the “Words of Wisdom” wall. With 110 students, we can’t possibly post every quote, so each group evaluates the collection and selects the one that they want to represent their group on the wall.
Connectors: The connector's responsibilities are structured differently, depending upon the desired learning outcomes. I require that all students come to the discussion group prepared to take on the connector role. Below are three approaches that I have used to facilitate group discussions:
When I start literature circles, each group has an agenda to remind them of the tasks that must be completed. Students who finish reading may work on the tasks. As they complete each task, the leader of the group signs off. Here is an example of a group discussion checklist that we used with the "Children of the Holocaust" unit.
If you need suggestions of books to use for literature circles, Scholastic List Exchange will help. Check out Children of the Holocaust Literature Circles Booklist (Grades 5–8), War Fiction for Literature Circles (Grades 4–6), Animal Stories for Literature Circles (Grades 4–6), and Multicultural Fiction for Literature Circles (Grades 4–6).
My experience of literature circles is constantly evolving: I am still learning. If you have any suggestions on managing literature circles, please share them below.