U.S. efforts to remain neutral in World War I (which had been raging in Europe since 1914) finally broke down when pressure to intervene on the side of the Allies became too strong. In April 1917, at the request of President Woodrow Wilson, Congress declared war on Germany. Wilson's desire to "make the world safe for democracy" and fight "the war to end all wars" gained popular support, partly as a result of the propaganda campaign by the Committee on Public Information and partly because these sentiments reflected ideals of progressivism. Production of war matériel meant more jobs, but food and fuel shortages reduced consumers' options. Persons with German roots became targets of abuse. African Americans in the South about 10 percent of those living there-migrated to the urban North in search of work, dignity, and freedom; most found only menial jobs, while dignity and freedom proved elusive. Many Americans supported the war effort by buying Liberty Bonds. Three million men were drafted for military service, and a total of 4,791,172 served. Included among them were 370,000 black men who served in segregated units while hoping in vain to gain the rights and privileges of full citizenship. Although casualties in other countries were many times higher, 49,000 Americans were killed, 130,274 died from all causes, and 230,000 were wounded. Exacting a higher toll on the nation, however, was the great flu epidemic of 1917-18, in which more than 500,000 Americans died.