• Meanings of 60 percent of new words students encounter can be inferred by analyzing word parts [-tele (far) + confer (talk) = teleconference]. (Nagy & Scott, 2000)
  • Information is "dual-coded" as it is stored in memory: in linguist form (meaning) and nonlinguistic form (imagery). Two of the best ways to learn a new word are to create graphic representations and visual images. (Paivio, 1990)
  • Although wide reading builds word knowledge, direct instruction in vocabulary can influence achievement and comprehension more than any other factor. Systematic instruction in key vocabulary builds independent strategies. (Baumann & Kameenui, 1991; Blachowicz & Fisher, 2000; Nagy, 1988; Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986)
  • Word meanings are learned because of meaningful associations rather than repetitions: Active engagement and use via multiple modalities. (Pearson & Johnson, 1984; Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986)