There are national differences in voter turnout - the percentage of eligible voters who actually vote. Several Western European countries (where elections are often held on Sundays) tend to have larger turnouts than the United States. In U.S. presidential elections the rate of voter participation has fluctuated over the years. The average turnout from 1932 to 1948 was 55%; from 1952 to 1968 it was 61%; from 1972 to 1984 it averaged only 53%; and from 1988 to 2000 it was 51%. Compulsory voting has been introduced in some countries, including Australia, Belgium, and Ecuador. Those who fail to vote must pay a fine, and chronic nonvoters may be disenfranchised.