As they worked to link science with literacy in their curriculums, the teachers in the University of Maryland study incorporated these six approaches, based on the Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) program created at the university's Literacy Research Center.
 
  1. Focus on big ideas. Use themes, not factoids. Themes lead children to investigate interlocking concepts. 
  2. Use hands-on experiments. Make it real. Take a class walk through a wetland, explore a city block, or make a terrarium with a Venus flytrap. 
  3. Supply trade books. Offer many genres. Use nonfiction books with lavish illustrations and encourage students to use them to form questions and investigate answers. Use literary books such as legends and poems to deepen students' experience. 
  4. Provide choices. By being able to choose from a short list of options for reading and writing, students feel empowered and motivated. 
  5. Encourage collaboration. By working together in groups, kids deepen their knowledge, build skills, and learn to express their thoughts verbally. 
  6. Write, write, write every day. In their science journals, students can record observations, drawings, data, and reports.