Often called the Cradle of the Confederacy, Montgomery holds a special place in the history of the South. The city was first settled in 1817, and after the state capital was moved there from Tuscaloosa in 1847, Montgomery thrived as a great cotton market and river port. In February 1861 the government of the Confederate States of America was formed there by the seven seceding states, and Jefferson Davis was inaugurated as its president on the capitol steps. The city served as the capital of the Confederacy until it was replaced by Richmond, Va., in July 1861. Federal troops occupied the city in April 1865, and recovery was slow and painful. In 1955–56 the black population, led by the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., boycotted the city buses in a successful protest against the segregation of public transportation.