Until the late 19th century, when iron and steel mills were established at Birmingham, Alabama's economy was mostly agricultural, and cotton was the only major cash crop. By the 1930s industrialization was well under way, and manufacturing eventually became the dominant sector of the economy. By the 1990s manufacturing was still the single most dominant sector, but various service industries combined accounted for a greater portion of Alabama's gross state product. Agriculture. In 1990 only about 2% of the state's population were engaged in agriculture, and only about 30% of the land area was in farms. Major crops are soybeans, greenhouse products, cotton, and peanuts. Large numbers of beef cattle and broiler chickens are also produced. In 1990 only about 2% of the state's population were engaged in agriculture, and only about 30% of the land area was in farms. Major crops are soybeans, greenhouse products, cotton, and peanuts. Large numbers of beef cattle and broiler chickens are also produced.

Forestry and Fishing. Alabama's extensive forests are used to produce much pulpwood and lumber. A small fishing industry operates mainly in the Gulf of Mexico, and the catch includes shrimp, oysters, croakers, red snappers, and catfish.

Mining. Alabama's mineral output consists mainly of bituminous coal, crude petroleum, natural gas, limestone, stone, sand and gravel, and bauxite. Until the 1960s considerable quantities of iron ore were produced in the state.

Manufacturing. Manufacturing firms in Alabama employ nearly one-fourth of the state's labor force, and the manufacturing sector accounts for about one-fourth of the gross state product. Principal manufactures include paper, chemical, and rubber and plastic products; clothing and textiles; food products; and iron and steel products. New manufactures include computer systems, compact discs, and automobile assembly. Important manufacturing centers in the state are in Gadsden, Birmingham, Anniston, Huntsville, Mobile, Montgomery, and Tuscaloosa.

Tourism. Alabama has a substantial tourist industry. Many vacationers stay at beach resorts along the Gulf of Mexico, notably at Gulf Shores, east of the entrance to Mobile Bay. Hunters and anglers are attracted by the state's ample opportunities for such activity, and many tourists visit Alabama's historic sites, state parks, and national forests.

Transportation. Extensive transportation facilities exist in Alabama, with Birmingham the hub of the state's road and rail systems. Major interstate highways that intersect there include I-65, I-59, and I-20. The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, which opened in 1985, provides a barge route through Alabama to Mobile, the state's only seaport, which also has easy access to the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The Alabama-Coosa and Black Warrior-Tombigbee river systems are also navigable through a system of locks and dams.

Energy. About half of Alabama's electrical capacity and production comes from private sources. The Alabama Power Company, a private utility, operates a number of hydroelectric projects on the Alabama, Black Warrior, Coosa, and Tallapoosa rivers. Much of the remaining electric power comes from the federally owned Tennessee Valley Authority through its Guntersville, Wheeler, and Wilson dams. Nuclear power plants and coal-burning or other fossil-fuel-burning plants also operate in the state. About half of Alabama's electrical capacity and production comes from private sources. The Alabama Power Company, a private utility, operates a number of hydroelectric projects on the Alabama, Black Warrior, Coosa, and Tallapoosa rivers. Much of the remaining electric power comes from the federally owned Tennessee Valley Authority through its Guntersville, Wheeler, and Wilson dams. Nuclear power plants and coal-burning or other fossil-fuel-burning plants also operate in the state.

Extensive transportation facilities exist in Alabama, with Birmingham the hub of the state's road and rail systems. Major interstate highways that intersect there include I-65, I-59, and I-20. The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, which opened in 1985, provides a barge route through Alabama to Mobile, the state's only seaport, which also has easy access to the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The Alabama-Coosa and Black Warrior-Tombigbee river systems are also navigable through a system of locks and dams.

Alabama has a substantial tourist industry. Many vacationers stay at beach resorts along the Gulf of Mexico, notably at Gulf Shores, east of the entrance to Mobile Bay. Hunters and anglers are attracted by the state's ample opportunities for such activity, and many tourists visit Alabama's historic sites, state parks, and national forests.

Manufacturing firms in Alabama employ nearly one-fourth of the state's labor force, and the manufacturing sector accounts for about one-fourth of the gross state product. Principal manufactures include paper, chemical, and rubber and plastic products; clothing and textiles; food products; and iron and steel products. New manufactures include computer systems, compact discs, and automobile assembly. Important manufacturing centers in the state are in Gadsden, Birmingham, Anniston, Huntsville, Mobile, Montgomery, and Tuscaloosa.

Alabama's mineral output consists mainly of bituminous coal, crude petroleum, natural gas, limestone, stone, sand and gravel, and bauxite. Until the 1960s considerable quantities of iron ore were produced in the state.

Alabama's extensive forests are used to produce much pulpwood and lumber. A small fishing industry operates mainly in the Gulf of Mexico, and the catch includes shrimp, oysters, croakers, red snappers, and catfish.

Forestry and Fishing. Alabama's extensive forests are used to produce much pulpwood and lumber. A small fishing industry operates mainly in the Gulf of Mexico, and the catch includes shrimp, oysters, croakers, red snappers, and catfish.

Mining. Alabama's mineral output consists mainly of bituminous coal, crude petroleum, natural gas, limestone, stone, sand and gravel, and bauxite. Until the 1960s considerable quantities of iron ore were produced in the state.

Manufacturing. Manufacturing firms in Alabama employ nearly one-fourth of the state's labor force, and the manufacturing sector accounts for about one-fourth of the gross state product. Principal manufactures include paper, chemical, and rubber and plastic products; clothing and textiles; food products; and iron and steel products. New manufactures include computer systems, compact discs, and automobile assembly. Important manufacturing centers in the state are in Gadsden, Birmingham, Anniston, Huntsville, Mobile, Montgomery, and Tuscaloosa.

Tourism. Alabama has a substantial tourist industry. Many vacationers stay at beach resorts along the Gulf of Mexico, notably at Gulf Shores, east of the entrance to Mobile Bay. Hunters and anglers are attracted by the state's ample opportunities for such activity, and many tourists visit Alabama's historic sites, state parks, and national forests.

Transportation. Extensive transportation facilities exist in Alabama, with Birmingham the hub of the state's road and rail systems. Major interstate highways that intersect there include I-65, I-59, and I-20. The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, which opened in 1985, provides a barge route through Alabama to Mobile, the state's only seaport, which also has easy access to the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The Alabama-Coosa and Black Warrior-Tombigbee river systems are also navigable through a system of locks and dams.

Energy. About half of Alabama's electrical capacity and production comes from private sources. The Alabama Power Company, a private utility, operates a number of hydroelectric projects on the Alabama, Black Warrior, Coosa, and Tallapoosa rivers. Much of the remaining electric power comes from the federally owned Tennessee Valley Authority through its Guntersville, Wheeler, and Wilson dams. Nuclear power plants and coal-burning or other fossil-fuel-burning plants also operate in the state. About half of Alabama's electrical capacity and production comes from private sources. The Alabama Power Company, a private utility, operates a number of hydroelectric projects on the Alabama, Black Warrior, Coosa, and Tallapoosa rivers. Much of the remaining electric power comes from the federally owned Tennessee Valley Authority through its Guntersville, Wheeler, and Wilson dams. Nuclear power plants and coal-burning or other fossil-fuel-burning plants also operate in the state.

Extensive transportation facilities exist in Alabama, with Birmingham the hub of the state's road and rail systems. Major interstate highways that intersect there include I-65, I-59, and I-20. The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, which opened in 1985, provides a barge route through Alabama to Mobile, the state's only seaport, which also has easy access to the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The Alabama-Coosa and Black Warrior-Tombigbee river systems are also navigable through a system of locks and dams.

Alabama has a substantial tourist industry. Many vacationers stay at beach resorts along the Gulf of Mexico, notably at Gulf Shores, east of the entrance to Mobile Bay. Hunters and anglers are attracted by the state's ample opportunities for such activity, and many tourists visit Alabama's historic sites, state parks, and national forests.

Manufacturing firms in Alabama employ nearly one-fourth of the state's labor force, and the manufacturing sector accounts for about one-fourth of the gross state product. Principal manufactures include paper, chemical, and rubber and plastic products; clothing and textiles; food products; and iron and steel products. New manufactures include computer systems, compact discs, and automobile assembly. Important manufacturing centers in the state are in Gadsden, Birmingham, Anniston, Huntsville, Mobile, Montgomery, and Tuscaloosa.

Alabama's mineral output consists mainly of bituminous coal, crude petroleum, natural gas, limestone, stone, sand and gravel, and bauxite. Until the 1960s considerable quantities of iron ore were produced in the state.

Mining. Alabama's mineral output consists mainly of bituminous coal, crude petroleum, natural gas, limestone, stone, sand and gravel, and bauxite. Until the 1960s considerable quantities of iron ore were produced in the state.

Manufacturing. Manufacturing firms in Alabama employ nearly one-fourth of the state's labor force, and the manufacturing sector accounts for about one-fourth of the gross state product. Principal manufactures include paper, chemical, and rubber and plastic products; clothing and textiles; food products; and iron and steel products. New manufactures include computer systems, compact discs, and automobile assembly. Important manufacturing centers in the state are in Gadsden, Birmingham, Anniston, Huntsville, Mobile, Montgomery, and Tuscaloosa.

Tourism. Alabama has a substantial tourist industry. Many vacationers stay at beach resorts along the Gulf of Mexico, notably at Gulf Shores, east of the entrance to Mobile Bay. Hunters and anglers are attracted by the state's ample opportunities for such activity, and many tourists visit Alabama's historic sites, state parks, and national forests.

Transportation. Extensive transportation facilities exist in Alabama, with Birmingham the hub of the state's road and rail systems. Major interstate highways that intersect there include I-65, I-59, and I-20. The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, which opened in 1985, provides a barge route through Alabama to Mobile, the state's only seaport, which also has easy access to the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The Alabama-Coosa and Black Warrior-Tombigbee river systems are also navigable through a system of locks and dams.

Energy. About half of Alabama's electrical capacity and production comes from private sources. The Alabama Power Company, a private utility, operates a number of hydroelectric projects on the Alabama, Black Warrior, Coosa, and Tallapoosa rivers. Much of the remaining electric power comes from the federally owned Tennessee Valley Authority through its Guntersville, Wheeler, and Wilson dams. Nuclear power plants and coal-burning or other fossil-fuel-burning plants also operate in the state. About half of Alabama's electrical capacity and production comes from private sources. The Alabama Power Company, a private utility, operates a number of hydroelectric projects on the Alabama, Black Warrior, Coosa, and Tallapoosa rivers. Much of the remaining electric power comes from the federally owned Tennessee Valley Authority through its Guntersville, Wheeler, and Wilson dams. Nuclear power plants and coal-burning or other fossil-fuel-burning plants also operate in the state.

Extensive transportation facilities exist in Alabama, with Birmingham the hub of the state's road and rail systems. Major interstate highways that intersect there include I-65, I-59, and I-20. The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, which opened in 1985, provides a barge route through Alabama to Mobile, the state's only seaport, which also has easy access to the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The Alabama-Coosa and Black Warrior-Tombigbee river systems are also navigable through a system of locks and dams.

Alabama has a substantial tourist industry. Many vacationers stay at beach resorts along the Gulf of Mexico, notably at Gulf Shores, east of the entrance to Mobile Bay. Hunters and anglers are attracted by the state's ample opportunities for such activity, and many tourists visit Alabama's historic sites, state parks, and national forests.

Manufacturing firms in Alabama employ nearly one-fourth of the state's labor force, and the manufacturing sector accounts for about one-fourth of the gross state product. Principal manufactures include paper, chemical, and rubber and plastic products; clothing and textiles; food products; and iron and steel products. New manufactures include computer systems, compact discs, and automobile assembly. Important manufacturing centers in the state are in Gadsden, Birmingham, Anniston, Huntsville, Mobile, Montgomery, and Tuscaloosa.

Manufacturing. Manufacturing firms in Alabama employ nearly one-fourth of the state's labor force, and the manufacturing sector accounts for about one-fourth of the gross state product. Principal manufactures include paper, chemical, and rubber and plastic products; clothing and textiles; food products; and iron and steel products. New manufactures include computer systems, compact discs, and automobile assembly. Important manufacturing centers in the state are in Gadsden, Birmingham, Anniston, Huntsville, Mobile, Montgomery, and Tuscaloosa.

Tourism. Alabama has a substantial tourist industry. Many vacationers stay at beach resorts along the Gulf of Mexico, notably at Gulf Shores, east of the entrance to Mobile Bay. Hunters and anglers are attracted by the state's ample opportunities for such activity, and many tourists visit Alabama's historic sites, state parks, and national forests.

Transportation. Extensive transportation facilities exist in Alabama, with Birmingham the hub of the state's road and rail systems. Major interstate highways that intersect there include I-65, I-59, and I-20. The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, which opened in 1985, provides a barge route through Alabama to Mobile, the state's only seaport, which also has easy access to the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The Alabama-Coosa and Black Warrior-Tombigbee river systems are also navigable through a system of locks and dams.

Energy. About half of Alabama's electrical capacity and production comes from private sources. The Alabama Power Company, a private utility, operates a number of hydroelectric projects on the Alabama, Black Warrior, Coosa, and Tallapoosa rivers. Much of the remaining electric power comes from the federally owned Tennessee Valley Authority through its Guntersville, Wheeler, and Wilson dams. Nuclear power plants and coal-burning or other fossil-fuel-burning plants also operate in the state. About half of Alabama's electrical capacity and production comes from private sources. The Alabama Power Company, a private utility, operates a number of hydroelectric projects on the Alabama, Black Warrior, Coosa, and Tallapoosa rivers. Much of the remaining electric power comes from the federally owned Tennessee Valley Authority through its Guntersville, Wheeler, and Wilson dams. Nuclear power plants and coal-burning or other fossil-fuel-burning plants also operate in the state.

Extensive transportation facilities exist in Alabama, with Birmingham the hub of the state's road and rail systems. Major interstate highways that intersect there include I-65, I-59, and I-20. The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, which opened in 1985, provides a barge route through Alabama to Mobile, the state's only seaport, which also has easy access to the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The Alabama-Coosa and Black Warrior-Tombigbee river systems are also navigable through a system of locks and dams.

Alabama has a substantial tourist industry. Many vacationers stay at beach resorts along the Gulf of Mexico, notably at Gulf Shores, east of the entrance to Mobile Bay. Hunters and anglers are attracted by the state's ample opportunities for such activity, and many tourists visit Alabama's historic sites, state parks, and national forests.

Tourism. Alabama has a substantial tourist industry. Many vacationers stay at beach resorts along the Gulf of Mexico, notably at Gulf Shores, east of the entrance to Mobile Bay. Hunters and anglers are attracted by the state's ample opportunities for such activity, and many tourists visit Alabama's historic sites, state parks, and national forests.

Transportation. Extensive transportation facilities exist in Alabama, with Birmingham the hub of the state's road and rail systems. Major interstate highways that intersect there include I-65, I-59, and I-20. The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, which opened in 1985, provides a barge route through Alabama to Mobile, the state's only seaport, which also has easy access to the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The Alabama-Coosa and Black Warrior-Tombigbee river systems are also navigable through a system of locks and dams.

Energy. About half of Alabama's electrical capacity and production comes from private sources. The Alabama Power Company, a private utility, operates a number of hydroelectric projects on the Alabama, Black Warrior, Coosa, and Tallapoosa rivers. Much of the remaining electric power comes from the federally owned Tennessee Valley Authority through its Guntersville, Wheeler, and Wilson dams. Nuclear power plants and coal-burning or other fossil-fuel-burning plants also operate in the state. About half of Alabama's electrical capacity and production comes from private sources. The Alabama Power Company, a private utility, operates a number of hydroelectric projects on the Alabama, Black Warrior, Coosa, and Tallapoosa rivers. Much of the remaining electric power comes from the federally owned Tennessee Valley Authority through its Guntersville, Wheeler, and Wilson dams. Nuclear power plants and coal-burning or other fossil-fuel-burning plants also operate in the state.

Extensive transportation facilities exist in Alabama, with Birmingham the hub of the state's road and rail systems. Major interstate highways that intersect there include I-65, I-59, and I-20. The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, which opened in 1985, provides a barge route through Alabama to Mobile, the state's only seaport, which also has easy access to the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The Alabama-Coosa and Black Warrior-Tombigbee river systems are also navigable through a system of locks and dams.

Transportation. Extensive transportation facilities exist in Alabama, with Birmingham the hub of the state's road and rail systems. Major interstate highways that intersect there include I-65, I-59, and I-20. The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, which opened in 1985, provides a barge route through Alabama to Mobile, the state's only seaport, which also has easy access to the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The Alabama-Coosa and Black Warrior-Tombigbee river systems are also navigable through a system of locks and dams.

Energy. About half of Alabama's electrical capacity and production comes from private sources. The Alabama Power Company, a private utility, operates a number of hydroelectric projects on the Alabama, Black Warrior, Coosa, and Tallapoosa rivers. Much of the remaining electric power comes from the federally owned Tennessee Valley Authority through its Guntersville, Wheeler, and Wilson dams. Nuclear power plants and coal-burning or other fossil-fuel-burning plants also operate in the state. About half of Alabama's electrical capacity and production comes from private sources. The Alabama Power Company, a private utility, operates a number of hydroelectric projects on the Alabama, Black Warrior, Coosa, and Tallapoosa rivers. Much of the remaining electric power comes from the federally owned Tennessee Valley Authority through its Guntersville, Wheeler, and Wilson dams. Nuclear power plants and coal-burning or other fossil-fuel-burning plants also operate in the state.

Energy. About half of Alabama's electrical capacity and production comes from private sources. The Alabama Power Company, a private utility, operates a number of hydroelectric projects on the Alabama, Black Warrior, Coosa, and Tallapoosa rivers. Much of the remaining electric power comes from the federally owned Tennessee Valley Authority through its Guntersville, Wheeler, and Wilson dams. Nuclear power plants and coal-burning or other fossil-fuel-burning plants also operate in the state.