The city of Carmel (also called Carmel-by-the-Sea) is a town of 4,239 (1990) located on the California coast, south of Monterey Bay, on the Carmel River. It was founded in 1904 as an artists' refuge and is now a tourist attraction. The nearby mission of San Carlos Borroméo (1771) is the burial place of the early California pioneer Junípero Serra.

Bibliography: Marek, D., Creme de Carmel (1994).