- Subjects:Counting and Numbers, Early Math, Educational Standards, Teacher Tips and Strategies

# Counting and Cardinality in Kindergarten: Meeting the Common Core

- Grades: PreK–K

Have you already switched your teaching focus to Common Core? We’ve been teaching to state and district standards for quite some time, but soon, all states will be teaching to the same standards. I personally like the idea of knowing that when a new student arrives mid-year, I can expect them to be familiar with what I’ve already taught in my own classroom. The Common Core State Standards focus on fewer topics; however, the topics are addressed in greater depth.

Many standards have been removed from particular grade levels. For example, patterns have always been a huge standard in kindergarten, but are not included in the Common Core State Standards for kindergarten math. By removing some standards CCSS allows teachers to focus on the most important topics in depth, like number sense. By having fewer topics to focus on, students are able to develop a real understanding of a particular topic.

After reviewing the kindergarten CCSS for math, I felt relief. It wasn’t more topics for me to teach; it was more of what I was already teaching. Instead of spending a few weeks on counting, I can spend a few months working towards 100 percent mastery for all of my students in my classroom. I am no longer tied to a plethora of mathematical topics; instead I am focusing deep and hard on just a few.

I truly love the kindergarten CCSS for math. Kindergarten is supposed to be a time of learning and growing and developing a love for school. Students need diverse experiences in math such as counting, making sets, and comparing numbers. Their development and understanding of numeracy comes largely through exploration. The Common Core calls for more hands-on opportunities, allowing students to develop and master skills.

*K.CC.1 *
Count to 100 by ones and by tens.

*K.CC.1*

Counting and cardinality is the first domain. It is broken down into seven smaller parts.

Counting rhymes, books, and puzzles all provide opportunities for students to practice a range of math skills. At the beginning of the school year, we practice counting with several counting rhymes. We also read a variety of counting books. I have several sets of self-checking number puzzles we use during math time.

These three books represent only a few of our class favorites.

*K.CC.2 *
Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1).

*K.CC.2*

Once students have an understanding of the count sequence, we start counting on with numbers two through ten. I show students a number on a flash card, and they must tell me what comes next.

I also have my students play a game I call *Counting On.* Students take turns with a partner turning over a number card and counting on from the number shown. Once students understand the count sequence and the meaning of what comes next, counting on becomes second nature.

*K.CC.3 *
Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0–20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).

*K.CC.3*

We practice writing numbers daily. The teen numbers can be challenging for some students, especially when we first begin writing numerals. Instead of writing 12, 13, or 14, a few students write 21, 31, or 41. However, most students are capable of writing numbers in sequential order through practice, repetition, and the following activities:

- Play Dough Number Mats: Students make numbers on the mats with play dough
- Linker Cube Numbers: Students form numbers out of linker cubes
- Roll and Write: Roll a number with a die and write it
- Monthly Calendars: Write the numbers on the calendar

**Count to Tell the Number of Objects**

*K.CC.4*
Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities: connect counting to cardinality.

*K.CC.4*

*K.CC.5*
Count to answer "how many?" questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1–20, count out that many objects.

*K.CC.5*

Ten frames are a great way for students to see the numbers and develop subitizing skills. The same is true for dot cards.

Playing games such as concentration with ten frames, dot cards, or even pictures can help students to understand the relationship between numbers and quantities.

Each week I introduce a new number to my class. We start with one and work our way to thirty. We build the number on an anchor chart using ten frames, tally marks, a tens and ones chart, and pictures to represent the number. We also use number journals to record the same information.

To assess students on number correspondence, we use a sentence strip with random numbers. Students count out the correct number of bears or cubes to match the number. The picture below demonstrates this task.

**Compare Numbers**

*K.CC.6*
Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies.

*K.CC.6*

*K.CC.7*
Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals.

*K.CC.7*

At the beginning of the school year we start out comparing sets of objects. It is easy for a kindergartner to understand the concepts of less and more. As they begin to build an understanding for number concepts we begin to compare numbers less than five before moving to less than ten. We have just recently started working with greater than, less than, and equal to symbols, using the alligator method: *the alligator eats the bigger number.*

### Websites

You might find the following websites helpful when looking for ideas on how to teach the Common Core Math Standards:

http://www.k-5mathteachingresources.com

http://colaborativelearning.pbworks.com/w/page/31904645/Kindergarten%20Math

The Common Core State Standards are not only changing the content we teach, but the way we teach it. These new standards are exciting and take us on a journey that I am glad to be a part of from the beginning. Have you begun your journey down the Common Core road? If so, what does the Common Core for math look like in your classroom?

## Comments (9)

Your web site really helped me! Thank you so much for the information! It was just what I was looking for!!! It answered so many of my questions!

I find it disheartening that we are having to do worksheets and constant paper pencil assessments and all on a tight pacing chart where we have little time to back up and reteach areas that they aren't getting. Obviously, your district is handling CCSS differently than we are. : (

I think the Common Core Standards are alright but in order for everyone to be on the same page we need to have the same pacing guide. Don't you agree? If you have one for your school district would you be willing to share?

I like the idea of teaching the students by using games and some famous cartoon’s characters especially for kindergarten students. It is an effective and enjoyable teaching method because the students of kindergarten are active, so it will be good for them if we use their energy in educational active time. Teaching the students in funny counting class gives chances for the each teacher to innovate and create teaching games that can provide the lessons in fun ways. Also, I think the teachers will enjoy teaching the students by games because they will surprise when they notice the students’ reactions.

I like the idea of teaching the students by using games and some famous cartoon’s characters especially for kindergarten students. It is an effective and enjoyable teaching method because the students of kindergarten are active, so it will be good for them if we use their energy in educational active time. Teaching the students in funny counting class gives chances for the each teacher to innovate and create teaching games that can provide the lessons in fun ways. Also, I think the teachers will enjoy teaching the students by games because they will surprise when they notice the students’ reactions.

Danielle, Thank you for your comment. I do agree that if teachers aren't careful and creative they could find themselves in the paper trap of worksheets and assessments. Hopefully districts will offer good CCSS training that shows teachers how to teach without it being worksheet based. I am fortunate to have had an opportunity to attend such trainings.

It looks as though you've come up with some really creative, teacher-generated ways to align your teaching with the Common Core. Unfortunately I hear more horror stories about young kindergartners being limited in their free, unstructured play-time, a lot of worksheet curriculum, and far too many assessments. This in my opinion is the downfall of pushing standards down a grade. There is a danger to drive the love of learning out of children, especially if they are not developmentally ready to process the information. I also fear for the high energy kids, who are usually boys, that have a hard time sitting for a long time for formal learning. Again, it seems that your projects are geared to be fun and hide the learning, but I fear that a lot of teachers might be so overwhelmed with teacher evaluations, and new mandates coming at them so quickly, that they will be unable to do as you have done.

We love the Dinosaur books too!

Great post!