- Subjects:Reading, Math, Classroom Management

Math Workshop: Using Developmental Grouping to Differentiate Your Instruction

In the past, I taught my math lessons as an entirely "whole-class" event. I found myself at the front of the classroom teaching while my students sat at their desks trying to understand the new concepts. There were always some students who found the lesson too easy and, likely out of boredom, tried to do the work before I even finished teaching the lesson. On the other hand, there were also those students who struggled to understand the concepts and felt lost unless I stopped teaching and went to their individual desks to help them. For these reasons, I found that teaching math was frustrating. I was never able to meet the needs of all of my students. That is when my teaching partner suggested we do Math Workshop after attending Alice Murphy's professional development seminar. I have no idea why I had not been doing this all along! I am so passionate about Reading and Writing Workshops because I can provide my students with the differentiated instruction that is so important in elementary school. Math Workshop now allows me to do the same thing, as I use developmental grouping to differentiate my daily instruction.

**READ ON** to learn how I use developmental grouping, math rotation stations, and math games to meet to the needs of my students during Math Workshop.

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The Math Workshop model was created seven years ago by a teacher in my county, Alice Murphy. Some of the information in this post was derived from her presentations and professional development seminars. Visit Alice's Math Workshop Web site to find detailed information about Math Workshop, as well as *Everyday Mathematics* lesson plans for using this approach in your classroom. You will also find her contact information so that you can invite her to train teachers at your school or in your district.

How Does Math Workshop Work in Our Classroom?

**Developmental Grouping: **Before each unit, we pre-test the students to determine their prior knowledge about the concepts in the unit we are about to teach. Using that information, we create three groups (high, medium, low). The students obviously are not told what group they are in, and the groups do change throughout the year as we move through each new unit. Students are assigned to a group with a name that goes along with our theme. (See "Math Rotation Stations" picture below.) We are careful to make sure that the group names change after each unit so that, for example, the high group is not always "The Titanic."

** Daily Lessons:** We use *Everyday Mathematics* in our school district. It is a great program because it includes lots of math games for the reinforcement of new concepts, and it provides teachers with materials to meet the needs of both gifted and remedial students. We teach the lessons in the order that they are introduced in the book. However, we alter the lessons when necessary to meet the needs of our highest math students and our lowest math students by using the "enrichment" and the "readiness" resources provided in the program. (See picture below.)

**Math Rotation Stations:** Once the students are divided into three groups, they rotate through three different stations during our daily math period. Students are typically at each station for 20 minutes. Below are the descriptions of the three stations.

**Work With Teacher:**At this station, students sit close to me and engage in an interactive lesson that is geared to their needs. I use a small dry erase board, and the students sit on the carpet in front of me so that I can see exactly what they are doing. Students often use portable dry erase boards to practice the concepts we are learning, or we may work together on pages in the math journal. (I am excited to have a new SMART Board to use during this rotation to make my instruction more interactive and effective!)

**Independent Practice:**Students are at their desks during this rotation, working on pages in their math journal (*Everyday Mathematics*' term for a math workbook). They may also be working on teacher-created worksheets or math packets.

**Math Games:**At this rotation, students play*Everyday Mathematics*games or other math games that help them practice the concepts they are learning in each unit. Students usually play the games with a partner in their group. However, there are times when the games can be played as a whole group or in larger groups of three to four students. This rotation can also be a time for students to work on math projects and/or investigations that span multiple days. (*Everyday Mathematics*even has online games that students can play on the laptops.)

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**In What Order Do the Groups Rotate to Each Station?**

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**Rotation #1:**

The **low** group starts with me at the Work With Teacher Station. I work with this group first so that they are taught the lesson before being asked to work independently or play a game related to the concept I am teaching. I use a small dry erase board or the interactive whiteboard for my instruction, and the students sit in front of me on the carpet. They bring their math journal with them because I often have them work on the math journal pages with me during the lesson. If I notice right away that they are struggling with the concept, I will use the "readiness" materials provided in the *Everyday Mathematics* lesson or create my own "remedial" resources. I often copy the "readiness" materials to use just in case I need them if I think they are worthwhile.

The **medium group** starts at the Math Games Station. They are often playing the game that is part of that day's *Everyday Mathematics* lesson, but they may also be playing a game that they have played in the past that corresponds to the concepts in the unit. Sometimes students are also doing projects at this center, especially during the fraction and geometry units.

The **high group** starts at the Independent Practice Station. I have them start at this station because they are often able to do the math journal pages without much instruction. Each day, they are asked to complete the journal pages that correspond to the lesson I will be teaching. When they finish those pages, they can also do the math boxes that correspond to the day's lesson. (Math boxes are practice pages in the math journal that provide students with extra practice on previously learned concepts.) The high group is also given a math packet created by our "Gifted and Talented" teacher because they often finish the math journal pages before it is time to rotate to the next station.

**Rotation #2:**

The **low **group moves right from the Work With Teacher Station to their own desks at the Independent Practice Station to finish the journal pages we started together. When they finish those, they can then complete the math boxes for the day. I have them move to the Independent Practice Station right after working with me so that the new concepts are fresh in their minds.

The **medium** group now comes to me at the Work With Teacher Station. I always plan to teach the lesson from the book to the medium group. However, they will sometimes catch on quickly and need to be challenged. If this happens, I can either do some enrichment with them or just challenge them by giving them some problems similar to the ones in the lesson but making them a little more difficult. I have a set of portable dry erase boards at my station, so students can work right on their laps. I like this because they are working right in front of me, and I can immediately see how they are doing. This group will usually start the journal pages with me, but they will complete most of the work independently at their desks if I feel they are understanding the concept.

The **high** group goes to the Games Station to continue practicing the concepts that were introduced in their journal pages.

**Rotation #3**

The **low** group moves to the Games Station now that they hopefully understand the concept that was introduced for the day. Playing the game gives them an additional way to practice what they have learned.

The **medium** group moves to the Independent Practice Station at their desks to complete the assigned journal pages that correspond to the daily lesson and then the math boxes when they are done with the assigned journal pages.

The** high** group is the last group I see at the Work With Teacher Station. Since they have already completed the journal pages for the day's lesson, I take a quick look at those first. If it looks as though most students in the group already understand the concept, I will use the enrichment materials from the *Everyday Mathematics* curriculum, or I will do some sort of enrichment that I create on my own. If the students in this group did not do well on the journal pages, I will teach the regular lesson and make sure that they understand the new concept.

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**Daily Schedule for Math Block**

We have one hour and 20 minutes scheduled for math each day (80 minutes). Below is exactly what we do during that precious time.

**Math on the Water**: (8–10 minutes) This is a student-led activity that is explained in greater detail in a later section of this post.

**Lesson Preview & Directions**: (5–8 minutes) During this time, I briefly introduce the concept I will be teaching for the day, specify the journal pages students will be completing in their math journals, announce any materials they will need to do their daily work (rulers, protractors, etc.), and explain the game that students will be playing at the Games Station (if necessary).

**Rotation #2:** (20 minutes)

**Rotation #3:** (20 minutes)

**Closing:** (5 minutes) At the end of math, I call the class back together quickly to reinforce the day's concept. If there is time, we will correct the daily math journal page as a class.

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**Don't Always Let the Teacher Edition Determine What You Teach**

Once I have completed a lesson, I decide what to do the next day. If the majority of students in all three groups understood the concept, I will move on to the next lesson with each group. If the low group needs more practice, however, I will spend another day with them on the same concept. I can either move ahead with the other two groups or just do additional enrichment.

There are even times when I feel the entire class could use an extra day on a concept. In this case, I create work for the Independent Practice Station since students would have already completed their *Everyday Mathematics* journal pages.

**Create Your Own Math Games to Enhance Math Workshop**

While * Everyday Mathematics *does provide materials for many games in each unit, my teaching partner and I have also created many games of our own and have purchased some additional math games at teacher stores or online to supplement the

*Everyday Mathematics*games for some of the units. There are great resources available from the Scholastic Teacher Store that can be used to enhance your Math Games Station, such as Scholastic professional books with reproducible math games and math center ideas.

You can also have students play *Everyday Mathematics* online games or Scholastic online math games if you have computers or laptops in your classroom.

**Make Your Math Games Reusable**

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We copy, cut, and laminate all of the * Everyday Mathematics *game boards (and any game boards that we use from the Scholastic professional books) so that they are sturdy enough to be used by multiple groups during the year and in years to come. We also mount and laminate the directions so that students do not need to interrupt us while we are working with another group.

We organize all of our math games in manila envelopes and store them in a cart with drawers so that we know all of the games we have available for each unit and can easily locate them when necessary.

Use Parents as Math Helpers!

Many teachers ask how I manage all three groups when I am only teaching one group. It does take a few weeks at the beginning of the school year for students to learn to work independently at the Independent Practice Station and work cooperatively and quietly at the Games Station. One helpful solution is to ask parents to volunteer to be your math helper during math time each day. The math helper in our classroom works at the Games Station. He or she can help students understand the directions, manage the groups as they play the game, and hold students accountable for their learning. There are times when students will not put forth as much effort as they should when the teacher is not looking over their shoulder. Having a parent watching them as they play the math game helps ensure that students are getting the most out of the activity. Also, if students have questions about the game they are playing, they do not need to interrupt my teaching. These parents also help out with projects at this station when students are doing collaborative projects as opposed to math games.

To round up parent volunteers for math helpers, we send home a sign-up calendar each month. We almost always have a parent helper at the Games Station to make sure students are getting the most out of the games they play or the projects they are doing.

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**Assessment in Math Workshop**

While we do give unit tests at the end of each unit to check the students' understanding of the concepts we taught in the unit, our overall assessment is ongoing (just as it is in Reading and Writing Workshops). As my teaching partner and I meet daily with each group at the Work With Teacher Station, we keep a clipboard that has a checklist of skills for the unit. We have each child's name listed on the checklist so that we can keep track of students who are struggling with any of the concepts we are teaching. We try to find time to meet individually with struggling students to reteach the difficult concepts or at least check in on their progress. If an entire group is struggling with a concept in a particular lesson, we will reteach the skill to all students in the group during Math Workshop on another day.

On the sample checklist to the right, you can see that we use "S," "P," and "N." "S" indicates that a child is "secure" with the concept, "P" means the child is "progressing," and "N" means the child "needs additional support." (Please know that this is a sample checklist I made that does not feature real students.)

**Math on the Water (Daily Math Review)**

We begin Math Workshop every day with what we call "Math on the Water" to go along with our Pier 13 theme. (Last year we called it "Martian Math" to go along with our space theme.) During this time, a student teaches the class a short math review lesson that includes three to five skills that have been taught during the current unit or previous units. See the photos and information below to understand what this time of our day looks like.

Each day a new student has the job of "Captain Math." It is this student's responsibility to complete parts of the math activities on the Math on the Water board during morning work time. Since students have about eight minutes to teach their lesson, we suggest they pick three to five math problems to do on the board each day. The student will then complete the problems with the help of the class at the beginning of Math Workshop. For example, if a child chooses to do a "frames and arrows" activity, he or she might not fill in the rule and just add enough numbers for students to determine the rule and add the missing numbers.

We do math first thing in the afternoon. Captain Math wears a captain's hat and leads the lesson while the rest of the class sits on the carpet. Students raise their hands to help Captain Math solve the problems, and the class agrees or disagrees with the final answers. (Captain Math is also expected to have solved all problems prior to the lesson so that he or she knows the correct answers.)

The Math on the Water board is a magnetic dry erase board that changes on a regular basis to reflect the new skills we learn in each unit. At the beginning of the year, we have things on the board that the students are expected to have learned in 2nd grade. However, by the end of the year, the board has everything from fractions and decimals to geometry and double-digit multiplication to reflect all that students have learned. The board is constantly changing.

Many teachers want copies of all of the things we have on our Math on the Water board. This would be nearly impossible, as we have hundreds of different concepts we put on the board throughout the year. Many of the items we use come straight from the *Everyday Mathematics* curriculum. These include things like frames and arrows, number grids, "What's My Rule?" charts, number story diagrams, place value charts, name collection boxes, etc. (We enlarge things from the *Math Masters* book.) We also use clocks, magnetic money, magnetic geometric shapes, fraction pieces, etc.

All of the activities on the board are printed on colored card stock and then laminated so that students can write on them with Vis-à-Vis markers and clean them off at the end of the day to be used again.

**Share Your Math Ideas!**

My favorite thing about writing this blog is hearing from other teachers. Please share the ways that you teach math in your own classrooms! My fellow "Top Teaching" blogger, Angela Bunyi, conducts a form of Math Workshop in her classroom and is also available to answer any questions you might have.

**Reader Request**

In some of the comments below, readers asked what my lesson plans look like. So I'm linking to a weekly lesson plan file from early in the school year. It includes all subject areas, but you can see how I plan my differentiation in math.

## Comments (113)

I implemented guided math today for the first time. It took me about 2 weeks to prepare, but it was well worth it! Each group went sooothly. I was able to give the extra attention to my low group (Blue Group). Thank you so much for all your suggestions and assistance!!

Hi Beth,

I've been following your blogs for a few years now. Quick question regarding homework...How do you assign homework (math) in a differentiated approach? Is is incomplete classwork?

Thank you,

Ryan

Great idea, I love it. Thanks for sharing!

Hi,

I am looking to start differentiated math in my 5th grade classroom. My district has the Common Core edition of EDM. I have about 75 minutes for math instruction. I was hoping you could share some tips about how to start with 5th graders. Thanks!

Hi Beth,

You mentioned that you have a co-teacher. What does your co-teacher do at the math workshop time while you are teaching the three lessons? Does she teach a lesson or monitor the students while they work? I have a co-teacher at math time and would like to try to teach Everyday Math as a workshop as you are, but want to make sure that my co-teacher feels like a useful needed member of the class at that time.

Thanks!

Sue

I think these ideas are wonderful and it does not seem at all like you are trying to take credit for something. I cannot believe people post negative comments. This is a wonderful cite to see because it shows how you, one person, sets up the workshop. As teachers, I think we all know that every classroom is different and every new class has different strengths and weaknesses that need to be dealt with throughout the year. For me, it is nice to see how others make it all work because sometimes it seems as though getting it all done is impossible. Please keep up the good work and thank you for sharing your experience.

Thank you so much for the great ideas! I'm new to Everyday Math and was struggling with how to organize it. This is Perfect!

I don't think the "workshop"model came from one person. I believe that there are many people who already taught this way for years, but didn't 'publish' their ideas for one reason or another. It's great to share, but I'm somewhat offended that it comes down to one person who 'created the Math Workshop model.' As a graduate of NYU in 2000, NYC has already been doing the Math Workshop model, along with the Reading and Writing Workshop from Teacher's College. What Beth did was great, and I know teacher's share ideas, but credit should be given accordingly - similar to giving credit when citing sources.

I love the way multiple ideas come together under this article to explain this model. I'd rather they get this information out to where people can see and share the information in a simplistic manner, so that good practice can continuously improve the effectiveness of our hard working educators. It's a testament to the collaborative nature of educators, as opposed to the business world. When it comes to helping kids learn, we're all together! :) Kudos to the gazillion of previous educators that have laid the path to the hybrid of ideas we have coming into schools today to improve results.

Hi,

I am looking for your website at "hill troy" did you take it down or move to a new school?

I would like to know also!

I would like to know also!

I was wondering the same thing!

Thank you for the great details about how to make the math workshop work in your classroom. I was wondering how and when you provide feedback for the independent journal station and what you have students use to take notes (binder or notebook).

Hi Beth... I was just wondering how you are using EDM with the new Core Curric. I am a third grade teacher in MI and have been struggling with aligning EDM with the common core... Just wondering your thoughts. Thanks!!

Thanks for the information, Beth! I'm wondering if there are any professional books on math workshop that you would recommend.

I'm really interested in the 12-drawer colorful storage cart you have pictured. I think it would be the perfect place in which to store math workshop materials. Can you tell me where you got it?

I have one of those in my class. I got it Joanns fabric store. I have seen them at K-Mart as well.

Hi Beth, I love all of your ideas. I was just wondering about your homework. Do you assign homework each night? If so, do you review the homework with your students or do they turn it in and you grade it? Just curious how you make it work! Thanks for sharing all your hard work.

Hi Beth--

I was wondering if you do the "Math Message" from EDM or if "Captain Math" takes the place of that?

Do you have any experience using this model in middle school or high school?

Hi Beth!

I am a new first grade teacher in Rochester, MI and I was very intrigued by your math workshop. Right now, I'm struggling with a range of students at very different math levels. My question is, do you teach the games throughout the year during your rotation while they are with you at "Meet the Teacher"? In first grade, I'm worried if I teach it in the 5-8 minute review at the beginning it will not be enough time for them. Also, if you look at your "high" kids math journals when they come to you...are they still obligated to correct their journal pages when you correct them at the end of the rotations? Or are they working on something else? Thank you for your time!

Lindsay

Admiring the time and effort you put into your blog and detailed information you offer! I will bookmark your blog and have my children check up here often.

http://coolmathgames2k.com/

Beth,

Thanks for all your helpful information and great ideas! I read above that at the independent work station, kids might be working on teacher created math packets. What do these look like? I am a second grade teacher trying to create review folders for my students so that I can meet with small groups and am very overwhelmed. Thanks in advance!

Kathy

2nd Grade

Hi Beth! Thank you so much for sharing your very practical math workshop approach. I have wanted to teach math in small groups for a number of years but couldn't figure out how to manage it. You have given me a framework to do so. My question is do your students always move to the next rotation even if they are not finished with the independent work? I am required to give grades during the week and wonder if you only "grade" the assessments or do you have students do additional work on a previously taught lesson? My " low" group will sometimes sit without working during independent rotation and get very little done. I'm hesitant to have them just move to the game, if they have little work completed. Some students will even just write an answer down so they look finished & can go to the game. I have also kept students with me for the next rotation if they are really struggling with a concept, which seems to be effective. I guess I'm struggling with how to keep the kids accountable so the work they are doing is a closer reflection to what they really understand. Any thoughts you have are appreciated!

Lesley

Beth

I teach kindergarten everyday math and would love to set up stations like you. Any suggestions you can give me would be greatly appreciated.

Krista

Hi,

I teach a k/1 multi-age classroom. EDM is the math curriculum in my district. I like the way you have set out the organization for the rotations. Would you have any further suggestions for a k/1 classroom?

Thanks.

Kelley,

Math fact practice is incorporated into "Math on the Water" daily (see my post), but we also do timed tests each week where students must memorize their multiplication facts. They move up a level each time they can do 30 problems in a minute. I have never been a huge proponent of timed tests, but I was finding that students were not truly memorizing their facts unless they were held officially responsible. Our fourth grade teachers are very grateful that we do this in our 3rd grade classroom because they are better prepared for 4th grade math!

With all of the awesome technology you have in your classroom, I think you will find that Math Workshop will help you really use those tech tools to improve your math instruction and really meet the individual needs of your students!

Good luck!

-Beth

Beth,

Math Boxes are a component of Everyday Math, the program we use in our district. They are simply a page in the students' math journal that has 6 boxes, each one with a math problem that helps them review what they have learned in previous lessons. They are not anything fancy, but I don't think I am allowed to share them on the blog. I do not create the Math Boxes myself, so it would be a copyright issue. Here is a link to the Everyday Math website where you can find more information about the program: http://everydaymath.uchicago.edu/about/

-Beth

Jen, You can just use parts of the final tests for your pre-tests if necessary. The last Math Boxes page in each unit is also a good tool to use since it focuses on upcoming concepts. My teaching partners and I have created some pre-tests using the assessment creator CD, but we are constantly tweaking them to improve them for the following years. I would like to use them and know that they are "perfect" before I post them as resources for other teachers to use.

I hope you enjoy doing a math workshop in your classroom next school year!

-Beth

Beth,

How do you incorporate math fact practice into your day and math workshops? Two years ago I was transferred from high school math to a 3 grade classroom and your website saved me! After one year in 3rd grade I was then transferred to 6th grade. I just go the news on Friday that next year I will be in 4th grade and the first thing I did was look you back up! Our district uses the Saxon math program and I do have a smart board, wireless slate and a set of "clickers"...student response systems. I would love to try the math workshop but after being in 6th grade for two years I know how weak the students are in their facts .... your comments would be greatly appreciated. Thanks for all you do...you are truly an inspiration.

Kelley

You have a great website. I do have a question though. I am beginning to use Math Workshop in my class and was wondering if you could give me an idea about finding some great stroy problems to use. I am having a hard time coming up with some for place value in particular. Thanks, Melissa

Hi Beth, You have the greatest ideas, and your students are so lucky to have such a creative and passionate teacher!

I was curious...regarding the pre-tests, are these tests you have found somewhere online, or did you create them yourself? If possible, could you share your resource? I teach using Everyday Math, and think your setup would be perfect to reach my students better and keep them engaged! (I don't know why no one has thought of it before!)

I love the idea of math stations and I will start using them next year. However, I was wondering if you could send or post a sample of math boxes-- I would not mind making my own.

Sarah,

You asked what we do when we have students performing well beyond a third grade level in math. You wanted to know if they still do the math journal pages. We are fortunate in our district that the teachers who do our gifted and talented program created challenge packets for each unit in Everyday Math. When necessary, some students will work on these packets during the independent work rotation.

-Beth

Jillian,

Good luck with your move from Title 1 to 3rd grade. I think you will love being in the classroom full-time, and your experience working with small groups will be perfect when implementing a math workshop in your new classroom!

Have a great summer!

-Beth

Amy,

Good luck implementing your math workshop next year! You certainly do not need Everyday Math to make it work. In fact, we pull materials from many different resources to make our workshop as successful as we can!

-Beth

I was so excited when I found all of your valuable information on line. We just finished school for the year and I am already planning on ideas for next year...thank you for sharing! I have one quick question regarding math. What do you do if you have students beyond the norm...for example students who are really performing beyond a third grade level with certain concepts...do you still have them focus on their math journal or do you create entirely different modes of independent work for those children? Again, thank you for your willingness to share your fabulous ideas. I feel like a kid in a candy store ready to explore new things.... Thank you! Enjoy your summer and your children. I have three daughters myself and we are all ready to play.

Beth,

I love all of your ideas! Next year I will be moving from Title I to 3rd grade. I am excited and trying to get as many ideas as possible. I think I will set up my math the way you have yours. Where I was Title I, I am use to working with small groups, so I feel I will be very effective this way. My county is changing math series to "Everyday Math" this coming year. I am already planing on fixing the game cards as you suggested. Jennie A, is there anyway I could get those smartboard files? I would compensate you for your time....just email me. Thanks everyone for great ideas. jrichmond@access.k12.wv.us

Thank you so much for sharing all of your work with us. I was just talking to my principal about implementing a math workshop since we already have reading and writing workshop well underway. I teach in 1 of the 2 schools in our districts that tested Everday Math this year. Although we are not going to be using Everyday Math as a curriculum guide and instead will go back to using our districts pacing guide I am excited about pulling some of the lessons and practice for work with my kids.

Alison,

We have used the CD to make some of our pre-tests. However, we have also just taken items from the final test and given that as the pre-test. We look at the students' overall performance on their pre-tests to determine which group they will be in for the upcoming unit. You can read comment #47 for more information on pre-testing.

-Beth

Kerstin,

You asked about the open response questions in Everyday Math. I assume you are talking about the optional part of the unit assessments. Since we do have students complete many of the "Writing/Reasoning" questions during our daily lessons, we also like to include this section on our tests. It helps us to see if our students can truly write about HOW they solve a problem rather than just showing us the numbers. However, we have found that some of the open responses are quite difficult, so there are times when we only give it to students in the enrichment group.

-Beth

Gaile,

I'm glad this post was helpful for you! Also, thanks for sharing your "Majestic Math" idea. I love it, and I'm sure your students did too!

-Beth

Brynne and Jen,

I added a link at the end of the post where you can download a weekly lesson plan file from a week earlier in my school year. This is where you can see what my math plans look like. I certainly do not write out the entire lesson since it is in the Everyday Math T.E., but I do include what students will be doing at each rotation and what I will do differently for the enrichment and readiness groups.

I hope it is helpful for you!

-Beth

Robin,

There are way more problems on the "Math on the Water" board than a student will complete each day. Captain Math gets to choose the 3-4 problems he or she wants to complete each day. Also, there are some activities (blank cards)where Captain Math can make up his or her own story problem.

-Beth

Brynne,

Yes, I have a chart that shows the three rotations on my main dry-erase board in the front of the classroom. Each day I write what students will be doing at each rotation and which group will be starting at each rotation.

-Beth

Brynne,

Yes, I have a chart that shows the three rotations on my main dry-erase board in the front of the classroom. Each day I write what students will be doing at each rotation and which group will be starting at each rotation.

-Beth

Nikki,

If you read my comment #56 I think your question about the 5-8 minute introduction/lesson will be answered. If you are still confused, let me know and I will clarify it for you.

Thanks for posting!

-Beth

Beth, You said you give pretests to your students before placing them. Do you look at each question to decide which group they are in for that day or is it for the whole test? Do you use the one you can make online with the Cd? Great Idea, just trying to figure out how I would use this.. Thanks!