Myths, Folktales, & Fairy Tales for Grades 7-9
Projects to help students compare and contrast these three genres of writing
- Grades: 6–8, 9–12
- Unit Plan:
The focus for students in this age group is to compare and contrast the different genres of folktales and myths. Depending on time and curriculum needs, you may want to focus on a specific activity.
- Appreciate diverse cultures and traditions through folklore and folktales
- Compare historic world cultures with contemporary ones
- Demonstrate understanding of the genres by responding to questions
- Follow the writing process to create writing in different genres
- Identify unique characteristics of the genre: myth, folktale, folklore, and fairy tales
- Produce written work to show evidence of knowledge of the different genres
- Read and listen to genre examples to increase knowledge of genre characteristics
- Read myths and folktales to increase knowledge of world cultures and traditions
- Respond to questions about the folktale genre to demonstrate understanding
- Tell an original folktale to class members using appropriate fluency skills
- Use Web tools to access information about different cultures
- Use Web tools to write and publish original myths, folktales, and fairy tales
Set Up and Prepare
- Depending on time available, the grade level, and maturity level of each class, activities can be facilitated as independent work, collaborative group work, or whole class instruction. Teachers may use the guide to teach a complete unit or break the content into smaller learning components. Some suggestions are:
- Reading examples of folktales, fairy tales, and myths both printed and online as an individual activity.
- Peer editing written work in small groups.
- Creating and performing skits as a class activity.
- If a computer is available for each student, students can work on their own. Hand out the URLs or write them on the board so students will have a guide through the activity.
- If you are working in a lab, set up the computers to be on the desired website as students walk into class. If there are fewer computers than students, group the students by reading level. Assign each student a role: a "driver" who navigates the web, a timer who keeps the group on task, and a note taker. If there are more than three students per computer, you can add roles like a team leader, a team reporter, etc.
- If you are working in a learning station in your classroom, break out your class into different groups. Have rotating groups working on the computer(s), reading printed genre examples, holding smaller group discussions, brainstorming, writing, and peer editing their own folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and myths.
Project Introduction (1 Day)
Depending on time available in class, assign a myth and a folktale as homework or read an example of each genre as a class. Point out that folktales are stories passed on from one person to the next by word of mouth or by oral tradition. Discuss defining elements of folktale (for example: takes place anytime, takes place anywhere, animals can talk, etc.) and write them on the board in one column. Then discuss the myth read aloud, and add another column to write the elements of myths including elements such as supernatural characters, extraordinary powers or tools, natural phenomena, etc. Explain to students that they will be exploring and writing their own folktales and their own myths.
Folktale Writing With Alma Flor Ada and Rafe Martin (10 Days)
Tell students that now that they have gathered information about folktales, they are ready to explore writing one. Have students begin the Folktale Writing with Alma Flor Ada and Rafe Martin. Encourage students to take notes on the characteristics of folktales. They will need this later when they compare this genre to myths.
- Step 1: Folktales: Have groups of three students take turns reading "Half-Chicken" or "The Shark God." Ask them to use storytelling voices, and practice fluency through expression.
- Step 2: Brainstorming: Read the Brainstorming tips with the whole class. Use "Half-Chicken" or "The Shark God" as a model to illustrate tip ideas as you read them. For example, when reading that the folktale genre entails imagining the world that acts as the setting, remind students that rivers and fires can speak in Half-Chicken's world.
- Step 3: Write Your Folktale: Suggest that small groups discuss the Alma's and Rafe's challenges on this page. Remind students also to refer to the Brainstorming tips as they draft their folktales.
- Step 4: Publish Online: Once they've completed their revision, have students follow directions to publish their folktale online. Encourage students to use the Preview option to proofread their stories one more time before submitting. They should also print the preview page to hand in for teacher assessment.
Exploring Everyday Folklore (3-4 Days)
Have students read "What Is Folklore?" and "Finding Folklore" and the samples of folklore provided in each. Invite volunteers to offer an example of each of the following kinds of lore: "children," "community," "family," "behavioral," and "oral." You may wish to rotate small groups of students to do the online reading or print out the appropriate pages for students to read offline.
- Tell students they will research folklore with their family and then publish their findings online.
- Ask students to read "Your Folklore." Print out a copy of the Research tips.
- Practice interviewing techniques in the classroom before assigning students to interview parents and family members.
- Have students share their interviews with the class.
- Make a copy of the submission requirements. Post it in the classroom or distribute copies to students.
- Schedule online publishing slots for each student.
Storytelling Workshop (5 Days)
Remind students that folktales were originally told and not written. Tell students they are going to create an oral version of a folktale.
- About Storytelling Print the page before hand or have small groups read the page together online, writing down four main points about folktales. Invite groups to share information with the class.
- Listen & Watch Download Flash ahead of class time if you don't already have it. Then invite small groups to view "How Monkey Stole the Drum" and record the story's folktale features. Revisit the Folktale Writing Workshop and listen again to Rafe Martin and Alma Flor Ada reading their folktales as well.
- Becoming a Storyteller Invite students to choose an established folktale upon which they will base their oral tale. Suggest that students plot the following parts when constructing their outlines: Story Beginning, Story Problem, Story Middle, Solution, Story Ending. Have students fill these in using the established folktale. Then suggest that students use the outline as a framework for constructing an original tale.
- Imagination Exercises Suggest that groups read both activities and choose the one they want to do to practice their oral and spatial storytelling skills.
- Telling Tales Together Have students test out their folktale knowledge by trying this interactive activity.
- It's Your Turn Allow students time to rehearse telling their story.
At this point, students should have been taking notes on the elements of the folktale and folklore genres. As a class, you can create a complete list on the board.
Continue your studies by studying the myth genre. Instruct students to continue their list of characteristics but this time for myths.
Myths Around the World (3-5 Days)
Explain that students will be reading myths that originated all over the world. Then encourage students to read through the myth stories. Share a world map with students. Show them how the countries on the map correspond to the various countries introduced in this lesson. Have students talk about what they know about each country or geographic location.
Encourage students to read through the various myths from the world regions. Then ask them to compare the culture of the myth they've been studying with that culture's contemporary counterpart.
Have students in small groups answer the following questions: How are the two cultures' myths different from and similar to one another? Do you think the differences/similarities are due to their locations or time in history? Why?
Myth Writing With Jane Yolen (3-4 Days)
Divide students into same-level reading groups to read the four Myth writing steps online. If you have limited computer access, print out a copy of the steps for individual students to read. Tell students that they will be following Jane Yolen's steps in preparation for writing their own myths. Encourage note taking by handing students the Setting the Stage (PDF). Students can use the chart to organize their work. Suggest that they write the phenomenon they chose on the top of the chart and fill the stage with the key words that will describe their myth and their phenomenon.
After students read through Step 2: Brainstorming, Invite students to use the Myths Brainstorming Machine tool as part of the pre-writing process. Read aloud with students the note and the directions, and encourage a question and answer period about the process. Then schedule time for students to use the machine individually. Let students know not to visit the writing page of the machine until they are ready to write. Going there erases their previous work. Students can use the writing page to take notes or to write their draft copy of their myth.
Return to Jane Yolen's Step 3: Write Your Myth
Make sure that students use this part of the process to write without self-correcting. Point out that they will have a chance to revise later. Remind students to refer to a copy of their chart from the previous step in the writing process, the myth from the Brainstorming Machine, and any other material as they write. Have students exchange papers with a peer for revision. Partners can write their comments on the draft itself. While students revise their drafts, have them check for spelling, grammar, and punctuation mistakes.
Step 4: Publish Online: Once they've completed their revision, have students follow directions to publish their myth online.
Add to the list on the board of folktale genre characteristics by adding a new column for myth characteristics. As a class, students should add to the list based on their notes from their research.
Comparing Myths and Folktales (1-2 Days)
On the board, there should be two columns of character traits - one for myths and one for folktales. Hand students printouts of the Venn Diagram (PDF) graphic organizer. Have students fill in the organizer with the words on the board. Which characteristics are completely different? Which characteristics do they share? These shared characteristics should be placed within the overlapping circles. Once students have finished filling out the Venn Diagram, hold a wrap up discussion.
- What were the main similarities between myths and folktales?
- Could you ever confuse a myth with a fairytale? Why or why not?
- Could you write a myth that was also a fairytale? What characteristics would it have to include and what would you have to leave out?
- Which genre did you enjoy more? Explain.
Supporting All Learners
This project aids students in meeting national standards in several curriculum areas.
- Unifying concepts and processes in Science: Systems, order, and organization.
- Understands basic features of the Earth (1).
- Knows the general structure and functions of cells in organisms (6)
International Reading Association (IRA) and the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)
- Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts (1).
- Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes (4).
- Students enjoy a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing-process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes (5).
- Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts (6).
- Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience (7).
- Students use a variety of technological and informational resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge (8).
- Students develop an understanding of and respect for diversity in language use, patterns, dialects across cultures, ethnic groups, geographic regions, and social roles (9).
- Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a variety of literacy communities (11).
- Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of the information) (12).
National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS)
- People, Places, and Environments (Students study the lives of people, the places in which they live, and the environment that surrounds them.)
- Individual Development and Identity (Students study how personal identity is shaped by one's culture, by groups, and by institutional influences.)
- Technology Foundation Standards for Students:
- use technology tools to enhance learning, increase productivity, and promote creativity
- use technology tools to collaborate, publish, and interact with peers, experts, and other audiences
- use a variety of media and formats to communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences
- use technology to locate, evaluate, and collect information from a variety of sources
Formal Assessment Ideas
The two Writing with Writers components - myths and folktales - as well as the folklore and the folktale sections include online publishing and a formal assessment with the student writing. Make sure students either preview and print a copy before submitting their work online or use a word processing document to print a copy for teacher assessment. See the appropriate rubrics below.
Writing Rubric Narratives:
Use the writing rubrics to assess your students' writing skills. These rubrics can also serve as models for a modified version that might include your state's writing standards.
Teacher Toolkit Tout Narrative:
Create a quiz for any activity or make modifications to any lesson by using the teacher toolkit!
Homepage builder Tout Narrative:
Post original stories on your class homepage for peer and parent enjoyment.