A pronoun takes the place of a noun.
Rewrite the sentences with pronouns in place of the bold words.
1. The tutor came to the house to work with Karla and Kevin.
2. The book belongs to the boy.
1. The tutor came to the house to work with them.
2. The book belongs to him.
Use expanded notation to solve the equations.
35 × 6 = ___
57 × 4 = ___
(30 × 6) + (5 × 6) = 210
(50 × 4) + (7 × 4) = 228
Male turkeys are called toms. They make the famous gobble noise. Gobbling can be a mating call. Toms make the noise to attract female turkeys. Female turkeys are called hens. Hens sometimes make a yelping noise. This gathers their babies. All turkeys make a purring noise. This noise means the turkeys are content.
Pilgrim children played games we still play today. They played tic-tac-toe, but they called it naughts and crosses. They also played hide and seek, which they called all hid. These games came with the Pilgrims from their native countries of England and Holland. But Pilgrim children had little time to play. They were often busy with chores. Children worked in the fields, helped cook meals, and took care of animals.
Use commas to set off nouns of direct address.
Add commas to correct these sentences.
1. Musicians we will begin on page 34.
2. Mr. Byrd thank you for the lesson.
Write your own sentences with commas setting off nouns of direct address.
1. Musicians, we will begin on page 34.
2. Mr. Byrd, thank you for the lesson.
Write these division problems two more ways: Use ÷ and then write a fraction using /.
1. twenty-four divided by six
2. thirty-five divided by seven
ten divided by five = 10 ÷ 5; 10/5
1. 24 ÷ 6; 24/6
2. 35 ÷ 7; 35/7
Eating foods cooked in oil is a Hanukkah tradition. People eat potato pancakes called latkes. There are doughnuts filled with jelly. These are called sufganiyot. The fried foods celebrate the miracle of the oil that kept the Jewish temple lit for eight days.
Hanukkah is a holiday celebrated by Jewish people all over the world. It is also called the Festival of Lights. The holiday celebrates the time, many years ago, when a temple only had enough oil stay lit for one night. But the oil burned for eight nights! The Jewish people had enough time to find more oil. The light in the temple never went out. Today, people celebrating Hanukkah light candles on a special candleholder. It is called the menorah. There are places for eight candles, plus an extra candle to light the others. On each night of Hanukkah, an additional candle is lit on the menorah. All eight candles burn on the eighth night.
What does the bold word in each sentence mean? What does the suffix -able mean?
1. An extra pillow made grandpa more comfortable.
2. Her new sweater is very fashionable.
Write your own sentence using a word with the suffix -able.
1. more able to feel comfort
2. more in fashion
The suffix -able means more capable of being or doing
1 mile (mi) = about 1.6 kilometers (km)
2 miles = about ___ kilometers
10 mi = about ___ km
2 miles = about 3.2 kilometers
10 mi = about 16 km
Do you get tired after Thanksgiving dinner? Your digestive system is probably working hard. Thanksgiving foods tend to be heavy and high in carbohydrates. This food takes more energy to digest.
Many Native Americans in southeastern Massachusetts in the 1600s belonged to the Wampanoag tribe. Wampanoag means Eastern People or People of the First Light. Wampanoag children learned skills by watching adults. All Wampanoag children learned how to swim. This was important because the Wampanoag often traveled by boat. Wampanoag boys learned how to shoot arrows and hunt. Wampanoag girls learned how to make pots, weave, and sew clothing.
Rewrite the sentences using possessive pronouns for the bold words.
1. The sister of the girl is the same age as Alice.
2. The dog that belongs to the boys is named Roger.
3. A bike that belongs to me is broken.
1. Her sister is the same age as Alice.
2. Their dog is named Roger.
3. My bike is broken.
Use expanded notation to solve:
43 × 7 = ___
68 × 9 = ___
43 × 7 = (40 × 7) + (3 × 7) = 301
68 × 9 = (60 × 9) + (8 × 9) = 612
Polar bears live in the Arctic where it is extremely cold all year long. They have thick fur and a thick layer of fat to keep them warm. Polar bears are some of the largest bears in the world. They grow to eight feet long. Some polar bears weigh more than 1,000 pounds. Baby polar bears are small. They weigh less than two pounds when they are born.
Have you ever written a letter? December is Write a Friend month. Before telephones and email were invented, handwritten letters were the best way to stay in touch with friends who lived far away. Today some friends who live far apart stay in touch using letters or email. We call those people pen pals.
Use commas to set off nouns of direct address.
Add commas to correct the sentences.
1. Ladies and gentlemen please be seated.
2. Actors take your places for the opening number.
Write your own sentences with commas setting off nouns of direct address.
1. Ladies and gentlemen, please be seated.
2. Actors, take your places for the opening number.
Write the division problems two different ways: using ÷ and as a fraction using /
Example: ten divided by five = 10 ÷ 5 and 10/5
forty-two divided by seven
sixty-four divided by eight
forty-two divided by seven = 42 ÷ 7 and 42/7
sixty-four divided by eight = 64 ÷ 8 and 64/8
Days are shorter in winter. There are more hours of darkness. So many winter festivals around the world include lights and candles. The lights brighten up a dark and cold time of the year. Hanukkah, Christmas, and Kwanzaa traditions use candles. So do celebrations for the Chinese New Year, La Posada in Mexico, St. Lucia Day in Sweden, and Diwali in India.
Playing dreidel is a Hanukkah tradition. Dreidels are tops that spin. They have four sides. Each side shows a letter from the Hebrew alphabet. The letters are nun, gimel, hay, and shin. They mean take nothing, take everything, take half, and put in. Players take turns spinning the dreidel. Depending on how the dreidel lands, they move game pieces like candies or coins in and out of a center pot.
Once you know what a root word means, you can figure out the meaning of two or more other words.
What does the bold word mean in each sentence? What does the root mean? Write another word with the root.
1.He replaced a pedal on his bike.
2. Most mammals walk on four legs, but humans are bipeds.
1. pedal: a lever you push with your foot
2. bipeds: animals with two feet
The root word ped- means foot.
Other words with ped-: pedestrian, pedestal, peddler
1 kilometer (km) = .621 miles (mi)
2 km = ____ mi
10 km = ____ mi
2 km = 1.242 mi
10 km = 6.210 mi
The largest snowman in the world was 122 feet and 1 inch tall. It was built in Bethel, Maine, in 2008. Many people helped build it. They had to use a 150-foot crane to reach the top! The project took them a whole month. They named the giant snowman Olympia for Olympia Snowe, one of Maine’s senators.
"Thirty days hath September, April, June, and November. All the rest have thirty-one, except for February alone, which has four and twenty-four, and every leap year one day more."
This rhyme may help you remember how many days are in each month. The rhyme is more than 450 years old. One version was written in the 15th century. Many other versions have been written since then.
Finish each sentence with do, due, or dew. Then write your own sentences using each of the homophones.
1. In the morning, the ___ on the grass glistens.
2. I __ not have any homework tonight.
3. Our reports are ___ on Friday the thirteenth!
1. In the morning, the dew on the grass glistens.
2. I do not have any homework tonight.
3. Our reports are due on Friday the thirteenth!
To add mixed fractions with unlike denominators, change the mixed fractions to improper fractions. Multiply the fraction so the denominators are the same. Add the fractions. Then change the improper sum to a proper fraction in lowest terms.
1 1/2 + 2 3/4 = 3/2 + 11/4 = 6/4 + 11/4 = 17/4 = 4 1/4
Illustrate the following equations:
1 3/8 + 2 1/4 = ___
1 1/3 + 2 1/2 = ___
1 3/8 + 2 1/4 = 11/8 + 9/4 = 11/8 + 18/8 = 29/8 = 3 5/8
1 1/3 + 2 1/2 = 4/3 + 5/2 = 8/6 + 15/6 = 23/6 = 3 5/6
Archaeologists learn about ancient peoples and their cultures. They study artifacts, which are man-made objects that have been buried in the earth. One group of archaeologists discovered the world’s oldest zoo in Egypt. They found bones from 112 animals. The bones are from 3500 B.C. The animals may have belonged to a powerful ruler.
The coldest place in the world is Vostok, Antarctica. On July 21, 1983, it reached negative 128.6 degrees Fahrenheit. People do not live in Vostok. It is far too cold.
What does the bold word mean in each sentence? Write your own sentences using each meaning.
1. The twins were raised by their grandparents.
2. The workers asked their boss for a raise.
3. Raise your hand if you know the answer.
1. look after until grown
2. higher pay
3. lift up
Joey saved $29.00 for his party. He bought goodie bags for his ten guests. One goodie bag costs $2.29. How much will he have left after buying ten goodie bags? Show your work.
$2.29 × 10 = $22.90
$29.00 – $22.90 = $6.10
Conifers are a type of tree that make their seeds in cones, rather than in flowers. There are 588 species of conifers that produce cones in all shapes and sizes. The Coulter pine tree has the largest pinecones. They can weigh up to 10 pounds.
The President's pastry chefs make a White House out of gingerbread every year. The tradition started in 1969. The chefs made a simple model of the White House. Today, the gingerbread White House takes months to plan and build. The chefs use hundreds of pounds of gingerbread and icing.
Rewrite the present tense sentence in the past tense. Rewrite the past tense sentence in the present tense.
1. Five elves wrap presents.
2. The reindeer landed on the roof.
1. Five elves wrapped presents.
2. The reindeer land on the roof or The reindeer are landing on the roof.
Use expanded notation to solve the equations:
24 × 12 = ___
58 × 14 = ___
(20 × 12) + (4 × 12) = 288
(50 × 14) + (8 × 14) = 812
Reindeer live in cold, snowy places such as Norway, Finland, Sweden, and Russia. Their large hooves spread apart as they walk on the snow. That prevents the reindeer from sinking. The hooves allow reindeer to move across the snowy landscape more easily. Reindeer hooves also form a tough rim. The animals use the rim to dig through snow to uncover lichen, or fungus, to eat.
The Attack on Pearl Harbor happened on December 7th, 1941. Japanese airplanes made a surprise attack on the US Navy in Pearl Harbor. They destroyed many ships and killed many soldiers. It was this attack that forced the United States to enter World War II.
Rewrite the sentence with quotation marks to set off the words the speaker says, as in this example.
He said, “Let’s go to the movies.”
Remember that end punctuation goes inside the quotation.
1. Mom said, You can go after you clean up your room.
2. Did you finish your homework? Dad asked.
Rule: The first word in a quotation begins with ___________.
1. Mom said, "You can go after you clean up your room."
2. "Did you finish your homework?" Dad asked.
Rule: The first word in a quotation begins with a capital letter.
126 ÷ 9 = ___
144/12 = ___
126 ÷ 9 = 14
144/12 = 12
Kwanzaa is celebrated from December 26 to January 1. This holiday celebrates African heritage. Each night of Kwanzaa, people light an additional candle in a kinara, a kind of candleholder. The candles are red, black, and green. Each candle represents an idea or principle that comes from African cultures.
Snow and ice look white to our eyes because of the way the sun's rays bounce off the surface. This is called reflection. When sunlight, which is white, hits snow or ice and reflects back, it looks white to us.
When you know what a root word means, you can figure out the meaning of two or more other words.
Complete each of these words that include the root -rupt.
1. A volcano ____rupted in Iceland.
2. It is rude to ____rupt when someone is speaking.
What does -rupt mean?
1. A volcano erupted in Iceland.
2. It is rude to interrupt when someone is speaking.
-rupt means: break
1 cup (c) = 8 ounces (oz)
1 pint (pt) = 2 cups
1. How many ounces are in one cup?
2. How many ounces are in half a cup?
3. How many ounces are in one pint?
4. How many ounces are in two pints?
8 oz in a cup
4 oz in a half a cup
16 oz in one pint
32 oz in two pints
La Posada is a holiday celebrated in Mexico and the United States in the nine days before Christmas. During La Posada, people walk in a procession, or parade. They visit different homes on each night. They carry candles and sing holiday songs. Then, children break open piñatas filled with candy, toys, and money.
Have you heard the word Yuletide? This word comes from ancient Germany. Yuletide was a religious festival celebrated for twelve days in winter. It was celebrated before the Winter Festival. Many of the traditions of the Yuletide holiday became part of modern day Christmas celebrations.