Unfortunately, your challenges are ones that most teachers are probably facing on a daily basis (myself included).
I remember so well being a first year teacher and being so completely overwhelmed with everything I was being asked to do. It took me many years to really feel like I was doing a good job!
However, with all of your challenges (kids at so many different reading levels, kids being pulled out, etc.), a reading workshop is really the best approach to take. The great thing about reading workshop is that it allows you to differentiate your teaching to meet the needs of your very diverse learners.
I also have a huge range of reading levels in my classroom. I still teach a whole-class mini-lesson everyday, but then I meet with guided reading groups and strategy groups during individualized daily reading time (IDR) to meet the very specific needs of my readers. Remember that your higher readers need to be seen less than your struggling readers. Many teachers try to make sure they meet with each reader an equal number of times, but your low readers should be seen more often. Your higher readers will still grow if they take part in an effective mini-lesson each day and then get IDR time to practice the strategies you are teaching when reading their self-selected texts.
I also have many students who are pulled out for different services. I try to work closely with the teachers who pull them out because I want them to be aware of what I am teaching. This way they can connect my teaching to what they do when they work with my students. I often share with them my conferring notes and my notes I take when meeting with the kids in guided reading and strategy lessons so that they can really focus on the readers' weaknesses. You might also ask these teachers who pull the students out of your classroom if they can stay in your classroom on certain days to support the student within your reading workshop. It is nice for them to see how you teach so that they can observe how you deliver your lessons to the class.
I certainly do not have a "right" answer to all of your questions, but hopefully some of these suggestions will help!
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