Compound Sentences

By Mary Blow on February 22, 2011
  • Grades: 6–8

Each year, I make it a goal to focus on grammar. Last year, I became determined to find a solution to the problem of run-on sentences. Each time after reading student writing, I found myself repeating the age-old question, “What is a sentence?” My students could explain the components of a sentence: subject, predicate, capital letters at the beginning, and ending punctuation. With some prompting they could conclude that a sentence must have a complete thought. So, how was it that they could identify a sentence and explain what one is, and still write paragraph-long, never-ending sentences? How could I change this?

Read on to discover my solution. Included here is a SMART Board activity and a free FANBOYS poster.

 

 

Introduction

Fanboys_smart_board_cover_page In previous years, I used the workshop approach, teaching mini-lessons and providing students with the opportunity to apply the new skill to their own writing. Don't get me wrong, there is a lot of value to mini-lessons in Writer's Workshop. However, my students were not transferring the newly learned skill into their writing, or were not retaining it beyond the immediate assignment. I began to realize that they needed guided practice. I decided to adopt a more thorough, direct approach based on what I had learned from my literacy specialist training: teacher modeling, guided practice, independent practice, and finally, application to the student’s own writing. It takes a 40-minute class period; however, it results in an accurate transference of skills and a higher retention rate. Once I teach the grammar skill, I display a poster in the classroom.

Essential Question

How can FANBOYS help us to become better writers?

Prior Knowledge

Diagramming_sentences_001 I define a subject as the "who" or "what" part of the sentence, and the predicate as the part that tells what the subject is or does. Some of my struggling writers need a review of the content area vocabulary. Students must know what subjects and predicates are in order to understand the structure of compound sentences. This "Subjects and Predicates" handout from Scholastic Printables is helpful for reviewing or preteaching this knowledge. SMART Exchange offers a plethora of FREE activities for teaching subjects and predicates. To give your students additional guided practice, download the "Diagramming Sentences" handout from Scholastic Printables. The visual and spatial learners often benefit from creating a visual representation of sentence structure. And for more on what comprises a sentence see "(Interjection)! Grammar: How to (VERB) (PLURAL NOUN) to (VERB)" on Scholastic's Homework Hub.

Hook

Start the lesson by building on the students’ prior knowledge of compound words to define compound sentences. Explain that a compound sentence is like a compound word, except two sentences are joined instead of two words.

Materials

 

Differentiating Lessons or Additional Practice

Scholastic Printables resources are highly useful in meeting the needs of all students in an inclusive classroom. You may want to limit the number of FANBOYS to "and," "but," and "or." These are the popular coordinating conjunctions. The handouts below are useful for differentiating instruction and giving students additional practice.

Lesson Procedure

If you do not have a SMART Board, download the  free Notebook interactive viewer, and you will be able to use the lesson in your classroom. Use a mouse to interact. The video below illustrates the structure of the lesson: teacher model, guided practice, and independent practice.

 

  1. Identify FANBOYS: Explain that the acronym FANBOYS stands for the words "for," "and," "nor," "but," "or," "yet," and "so." Chant the words, starting out slow and gaining speed. Give the students a couple minutes to memorize the words in the acronym, and see if they can say it impressively fast — like a tongue twister. Go around the room, allowing each student to take the FANBOY chanting challenge. 

  2. Clarify Comma Usage: The comma is inserted BEFORE the coordinating conjunction. If your students are kinesthetic or visual learners, write a compound sentence on a sentence strip: sentence one, comma, coordinating conjunction, and sentence two. Then cut it apart and have the students reassemble the sentence. The restless students may enjoy acting out the parts of a compound sentence. One student can be sentence one, a second student is a comma, a third student is a coordinating conjunction, and the fourth student is sentence two. The students form a human chain creating a compound sentence.

  3. Teacher Modeling: Model how to combine two sentences using a comma and a coordinating conjunction. I create sentences that relate to their lives. However, there are many sample sentences in the guided practice section.

  4. Guided Practice: Provide guided practice sentences that students can do at their seat. While students write their answers on their personal whiteboards, I walk around and troubleshoot.  They erase their boards and turn them over as soon as I correct them. I have 32 student whiteboards that I made out of a 4' x 8' shower board laminate ($20) cut into 12" squares. We recycle used dryer sheets for erasers. They work wonderfully.  

  5. Cloze Activity: I created a cloze activity to teach my students that coordinating conjunctions have different meanings. On the SMART Notebook file the students drag the word that BEST fits the sentence. I tell them they can use any word more than once. After they are done, I ask them how they would change it so that only one coordinating conjunction is used once. They have to analyze the relationship between the two sentences carefully to accomplish this task successfully. 

  6. Identifying Compound Sentences: In this part of the activity, the students analyze the sentences to determine if they are compound sentences or not. It is necessary to clarify that "for," "and," "nor," "but," "or," "yet," and "so" are not always joining two sentences. Otherwise, some students will insert commas before every “and.” Reiterate that there must be a complete sentence, a subject and a predicate, on both sides of the coordinating conjunction before it can be identified as a compound sentence. They underline the coordinating conjunction, determine if there is a sentence on both sides, and drag the comma to the correct position in the sentence if it is necessary.   

  7. On Their Own: Students save their free writes or journal entries. They select any journal entry to revise or edit. They identify FANBOYS, and then insert the proper punctuation, transferring the skill into their own style of writing.

Deleting FANBOYS to Fix Run-ons

For most of my students, the activity above is at their instructional level. These students achieve success quickly. However, those students who struggle with run-on sentences may get somewhat confused. I teach them to use their knowledge of FANBOYS to fix their run-on sentences — those one-sentence paragraphs. Often they are substituting FANBOYS for ending punctuation. I teach these students to read through each paragraph and replace the FANBOYS with ending punctuation, and then delete the FANBOYS. Once they are successful at simple sentences, I teach them how to join them, creating compound sentences. However, when they start experimenting, I tell them that they cannot use more than one coordinating conjunction in a single sentence.

 

Dans_copy_pic Online Interactive Games

For more practice, direct your students to these grammar games:

 

Please post your great ideas for teaching grammar in the comments section.

Comments

Hi Mary. A very useful and interesting activity. I wonder if you have any ideas how to teach collective nouns to the weak pupils? Thanks frm Rose

This is a great lesson and I would like to use the SMART Notebook. When I download the SMART Notebook, it goes to Zip Folder. I have SMART Notebook on my computer, but I cannot locate the SMART Notebook document in the Zip folder. Can you please help me with this?

Thank you so much!

Cindy

Is that apple for me

Thank you thank you thank you!!! printing out now for class in the morning (slightly ironic that my comment is so grammatically grotesque - lol) but was having the same problem with run-ons - they knew ALL the parts of speech, but the run-ons were coming endlessly. Thanks again!

Amber Wyland

This is the best info i could get thankyou!

good

I loved this website and I will use this more. I told my class this and went home and went on this website and then told me about this.

Mrs.Wood

This helped me a ton more and made my class think about words more. This is a fantastic way to learn more.

thanks for this.

this is great!!!!

I need an example of a compound sentence with the word thorough used in it.

Hi, Andrew. I will tell my students you said, "Hi!" Mrs. Lawrence and I will definitely work on the webcams. We want to meet your class, too. Good luck on your test. ~Mrs. Blow :)

Hello. I am one of Mrs. Lawrence's students. I am excited to meet you. I hope you like our games. When will we be able to see you over the webcams? I can't wait. Tell your class I said Hi!!! Hope to see you soon!-Andrew Woodard P.S I am Cole's freind. I am a boy!

Hi, Roni,

At this point, I am presenting at the Canton tech conference at the end of June. I suspect that I will be doing a lot of professional development as we are focusing on Race To The Top (RTTT) in my own school district. I may be back your way in August.

Greetings Mary, I would love to get together with you this summer! Let me know your plans and I am sure we can work things out. I will try to take a pic of "their, there, and they're" poster to send to you. Are you planning on attending or presenting at the Constructivist Conference? I am thinking of going again this year to work on writing. I believe it is the week of July 17. What about the tech camp? Take care, Roni

Roni, Oh, I loved tech camp. You make great connection with fabulous teacher like you. It is motivating sharing lessons with everyone. I'd be interested in seeing the "their, there, they're" poster. Any chance we could get together this summer? I will be in your area the last week in June. Have a nice week. ~Mary

Well done Mary! I have been using the term FANBOYS with my students since tech camp! Every time one of us says FANBOYS everyone claps because I told them FANBOYS make their writing more interesting and the "fans" have to clap! I also have my students create posters on areas where they are having trouble. Students take ownership and others remember it too. Our poster of "there, their, and they're" is also known as Sarah's poster. Keep up the great blogs! Roni

Danna,

Thank you for taking the time to comment. Enjoy the lesson. ~Mary

Thank you for sharing. This is a wonderful lesson!

Mr. Kimbell, I am thrilled that you found this so helpful. ~Mary

Absolutely wonderful blog post! Very helpful! I will certainly use these grammar activities on my SmartBoard with my 5th grade students.

I have found that even with repeated practice, the students in my classroom struggle remembering the different grammar terms. Just getting them to use this simple acronym for common conjunctions is great, but I would love another post on remembering the difference between pronouns, prepositions, predicates, and parentheses!

Thanks!

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