Physical Development: Developing Positional Relationships by Moving Over & Under

Using boxes and blocks, children explore positional relationships and develop physical skills.

By Dr. Eric Strickland PhD
  • Grades: PreK–K

For Children With Special Needs

Children with special needs can participate in over and under activities in a variety of ways. Two children can hold a broom or yardstick parallel to the floor, and classmates can roll or scoot under the item. Cardboard tubes or short sections of pvc pipe of various diameters can be used to roll balls or pass other items through.

When children move in, on, over, under, around, and through various apparatus, they learn about where their bodies are in relationship to objects. Young children also learn about positional relationships when we invite them to place objects in relationship to one another "put the square blocks on the shelf under the rectangle blocks" and when we describe the positions of their bodies or the objects. The more we use words in conjunction with experiences to describe the positional relationships, the more quickly children will understand the concepts. For example, while children are under the table, we want them to hear the word under to describe where they are in relationship to the table.

Investigating Infants

Infants can begin exploring the concepts of in, on, and under in very simple ways. Put a variety of small items (such as blocks, spoons, plastic lids, and plush toys) in a container. Use items that are large enough to handle but not small enough to swallow or choke on. Infants will delight in taking the objects out of the bowl or container and in putting them back in. Comment as children engage in the various actions: "Look! You took the spoon out of the bowl." The key is to let infants explore the physical relationships and for you to verbally label them.

Traveling Toddlers

Toddlers are great at getting into small spaces, and they enjoy the privacy those spaces offer. In addition, since toddlers are natural born "carriers," you can encourage them to carry things in and on other things, as well as under, over, and through. From a collection of items, invite children to select objects that you name and put each item into their containers. ("Jaime, a block! Krystin, a comb!") Then ask children to help count the items in their containers. Lead a parade around the room with children holding their containers: go around the tables, go under the desk, go through the door. As you go past each location, invite children to take an object out of their containers and place it on or under the table, desk, or chair.

Parading Preschoolers

Remove the chairs from a table in your room. Ask children to pick an object from the block or dramatic-play area and line up the items leading to the table, leaving two to three feet between each item. Then ask children to line up and follow your directions to get to the table - a child can go over the block, around the spoon, and under the table. You can add a through direction by using a cardboard box with the ends cut out (you'll have to tape it to a chair so it will stand up) or by getting a cheap trash can and cutting the bottom out of it to form a plastic tunnel.

"Can Do!" Kindergartners

Kindergartners will love the challenge of crawling through a tunnel and walking "on a narrow bridge" suspended "over a river." Using the trash can tunnel idea from above, place a balance beam through the tunnel so children can crawl through it. Then lay a 2' x 4' pine board on the floor at the end of the tunnel. Place a "river" cut out of craft paper under the board. Children can walk the board to go over the river. Later, invite children to carry a block or spoon on a tray as they move through the tunnel and "over the river."

This article originally appeared in the March, 2001 issue of Early Childhood Today. 

  • Subjects:
    Motor Skills, Physical Development
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