More Information
Source
Grolier Online
Discover the content connection—the definitive, fully integrated database collection and online research portal. It includes seven encyclopedia databases: Encyclopedia America, Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, The New Book of Knowledge, La Nueva Enciclopedia Cumbre, America the Beautiful, Lands and Peoples, and The New Book of Popular Science.

Reconstruction and Its Aftermath: 1865–1915

During the period of Reconstruction (1865-77), Union policy evolved to embrace the total abolition of slavery, as provided in the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, passed in 1865. Government policy also moved toward equality of rights for African Americans as reflected in the 14th Amendment (1868) and 15th Amendment (1870) and in related legislation. Opposition to equal rights for blacks was almost universal in the South and widespread in the North, however. Passage of the 14th and 15th amendments had been primarily motivated by the desire of the Republican party to maintain political control in the former Confederacy.

Participation by African Americans. African Americans took an active part in all aspects of public life during Reconstruction. They voted in large numbers and were active in the conventions that formulated new state constitutions in the South. Many held political office at the local and state levels; 14 were elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, and 2 were elected to the U.S. Senate. African Americans pressed for and helped to establish systems of public education where none had previously existed. They established private schools and colleges with the assistance of the Freedmen's Bureau, a federal agency, and Northern church groups. Legislation backed by federal troops made access to public accommodations possible. Many former slaves hoped that land confiscated from Confederate officials or land owned by the federal government might be divided into family farms and distributed among them. This was not done, however, and only a small number of blacks were able to purchase land, leaving the vast majority of Southern blacks economically dependent on former slave owners.

Opposition by Whites. The major attack on the rights of African Americans came from Southern whites, many of whom insisted that federal policies under Reconstruction were oppressive and vindictive. High on their list of complaints was the erroneous claim that state governments were controlled by blacks. Many sought to remove blacks from participation in politics and to restore, as closely as possible, conditions that existed before the war. As the federal government restored suffrage to former Confederates, a variety of legal and extralegal means were used to accomplish these goals. The illegal activities of the Ku Klux Klan and similar organizations founded in the late 1860s, coupled with waning interest in the North in protecting the rights of African American citizens, resulted in the gradual return of control of state governments into the hands of the Democratic party. This was effectively accomplished by 1877, when all federal troops were withdrawn from the South and Reconstruction was officially ended. White rule of the Southern states was fully restored, and the rights of black citizens were once again in jeopardy.

  • Teacher Store
  • The Teacher Store  
    New Leveled Bookroom 3rd Edition Grades K-6

    New Leveled Bookroom 3rd Edition Grades K-6

    The NEW Leveled Bookroom 3rd Edition offers over 5,000 inspiring books, across an enormous variety of text types, themes, genres, topics and content areas to put all students on a fast track to mastering complex text. This 3rd edition also includes new print and digital resources and assessment tools that explicitly support college & career readiness.
    What's NEW?!
    Guided Reading Toolkit
    : A BRAND NEW print and digital resource offering critical strategies for using guided reading effectively and to prepare for next generation assessments.
    Digital Resources: Create custom text sets with the Text Set Finder by sorting titles by Guided Reading level, Genre, Theme, and Text Type.
    Assessment Kits: Next Step Guided Reading Assessment from Jan Richardson and Maria Walther provides streamlined assessment tools for data driven instruction!
    Updated Implementation Guide featuring NEW sections addressing:
        -Common Core State Standards
        -Text-Dependent Questions & Close Reading
        -Using Guided Reading to Foster 21st Century Learning Skills


    NEW K-6 Leveled Bookroom Product Components

    Each K-6 Bookroom Includes:
    • 910 Titles (6 copies each)
    • 5,460 Books (GR Levels A-Z, DRA Levels A-80, Lexile Levels BR-1280)
    • Master Title List (PDF)
    • Downloadable Identification Stickers that include each book’s title, author, genre, Guided Reading level, DRA Level, and Lexile level
    • Teaching Cards for every title
    • 2 Resource Kits*
    • 4 Next Step Guided Reading Sets

    *Each Resource Kit Includes:
    • Guided Reading Implementation DVD
    • Guided Reading Implementation DVD Viewing Guide
    • Leveled Bookroom Set-Up Guide
    • 5 Guided Reading Toolkits (Implementation Guide, Flip Chart, and Website access)
    • Text Set Finder Access
    • 15 NEW Implementation Guides which include:
      • Running Records for every level
      • Behavioral Observation Assessments
      • Skills & Strategies Charts
      • Reproducible Genre Bookmarks in English and Spanish
      • Reproducible Check Out Logs
      • Common Core Support

    $26,955.00 You save: 33%
    Scholastic Leveled Bookroom | Grades K-6
    Add To Cart
    Educators Only
    New Leveled Bookroom 3rd Edition Grades K-6
    Grades K-6 $26,955.00
    Add To Cart
  • Teacher Store
  • The Teacher Store  
    Bluford High Grades 8-Up

    Bluford High Grades 8-Up

    Focusing on a group of high school students and their families, the Bluford High series realistically reflects the love, violence, isolation, and peer pressure of contemporary urban America. Mature content

    See below for complete list of titles. Appropriate titles of equal value may be substituted if any of the listed titles are unavailable at shipping time.

    Title list:
    • Blood is Thicker*
    • Breaking Point*
    • The Bully*
    • Lost and Found*
    • No Way Out*
    • Pretty Ugly*
    • Schooled*
    • Until We Meet Again*





    * Titles may contain language or content considered inappropriate for younger readers.

    $33.00 You save: 31%
    Paperback Book Collection | Grades 8-Up
    Add To Cart
    Educators Only
    Bluford High Grades 8-Up
    Grades 8-Up $33.00
    Add To Cart
Help | Privacy Policy
EMAIL THIS

* YOUR NAME

* YOUR EMAIL ADDRESS

* RECIPIENT'S EMAIL ADDRESS(ES)

(Separate multiple email addresses with commas)

Check this box to send yourself a copy of the email.

INCLUDE A PERSONAL MESSAGE (Optional)


Scholastic respects your privacy. We do not retain or distribute lists of email addresses.