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Elections and Voting, The Presidency, Politics, Democracy



Explore the Election: Campaigning
Teaching About Election 2008

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Is That a Fact?

Students become critical consumers of information as they learn to separate fact from election rhetoric.

Duration: about 40 to 50 minutes

Objectives: Students will be able to separate fact from opinion.

Students will be able to identify some of the persuasive strategies candidates use to win voters.

Students will be able to assess the trustworthiness of various sources of election information.

Materials: Computer(s) with Internet access; election ads or fliers from various candidates

Set Up and Prepare: none


  1. Review with your class the difference between fact and opinion. Remind them that a fact is a statement that can be proven true, while an opinion is a statement that shows how a person thinks or feels about something. An opinion cannot be proven true. Look for examples of facts and opinions in Scholastic News Online's election coverage. (Hint: For an opinion statement, look for quotes from candidates or peruse the issues bulletin boards.)

  2. Explain that during an election year, it can be hard to separate facts from opinions. Voters are bombarded with all kinds of information sources—including print and online news articles, Web message boards and blogs, print and television advertisements, speeches, debates and the candidates' own official Web sites. Write these sources on the board, and have students try to rank them in order of trustworthiness. Assign a low number to a source that students trust to be mainly fact. Assign a higher number to sources that students feel are out to persuade and may rely more on opinion than fact. Note that there is no one correct outcome to this exercise; answers may vary slightly. Sources that include both fact and opinion (such as debates and candidate Web sites) should get a middle ranking. Discuss what types of materials students can find on Scholastic's site (news stories are fact-based, and opinions are restricted to areas like polls and message boards).

  3. Point out that in some sources (election ads, for example), the creator goes beyond simply stating opinions and actually uses sophisticated techniques to persuade voters. Explore some of the most well-known techniques with your students:

    Bandwagon: In this technique, the creator makes it seem like "everyone" is doing a certain thing or supporting a particular candidate. Think of a political ad that shows a crowd of people around a candidate and says, "250,000 voters can't be wrong."

    Negativity: In this case, the ad or text creator focuses mainly on making the other candidate look bad—by listing failures or taking his or her quotes out of context, for example.

    Warm & Fuzzy: Ads or fliers that use this technique show a candidate kissing babies, shaking hands with elderly voters, petting ponies on a farm—anything to make the candidate seem like a regular, friendly guy or gal.

  4. Have students work in pairs to look through your samples of election ads and fliers for persuasive techniques like those described above. Have them discuss whether they think these techniques work—and why. Wrap up by discussing how voters need to be able to focus on facts and see through the persuasive techniques aimed their way.

Supporting All Learners

Auditory learners may find it helpful to read examples of facts and opinions out loud, listening for clues that signal opinion statements (should, should not, best, worst, etc.).

Lesson Extensions

In the games section of Scholastic's election page, students have a chance to build their own campaigns. Encourage them to use what they have learned in this lesson to plan an honest and effective campaign. For example, what facts would they focus on? Would they run negative ads?

Assess Students

Have each student pair share its findings with the class.


For homework, have students think of an imaginary candidate and create a campaign ad that uses the bandwagon, negativity, or warm and fuzzy technique.Evaluate the Lesson: Over time, see if students are able to differentiate between fact and opinion and recognize persuasive techniques in the media.


Scholastic Kid Reporters are on the campaign trail. Keep up with the latest election news in this special report.

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